Chronicling America Digitized Newspapers

Project Timeline 

In 2017, ASA was awarded a two-year grant (2017-2019) to select, duplicate, and digitize historic Arkansas newspapers with a goal of producing 100,000 pages of content for the Chronicling America website. By the end of the first cycle, ASA had digitized 100,622 pages from 40 newspaper titles representing 27 counties in the state. 

In 2019, ASA was once again awarded a second two-year grant (2019-2021) which added an additional 20 newspaper titles representing 14 Arkansas counties for a total of 109,232 pages added to the Chronicling America website.  

In 2021, ASA was awarded a third grant (2021-2023) to fund an additional 100,000 pages of content. The emphasis on newspaper title selection for this cycle is focused on underrepresented communities including female-owned and operated papers, minority-owned papers, and foreign language papers. 

The Team  

The ADNP team is made up of seven ASA archivists and microfilm technicians, with two staff members being dedicated to the project full-time. In addition to ASA staff, the digitization and duplication process is outsourced to a third party vendor. Additionally, ASA staff works with an advisory committee to give guidance and expertise when selecting the titles to include in the project each cycle. Our advisory committee includes historians, educators, librarians, and members of the press.  

  • Vincent Anderson, Historian and Reference Librarian, Baxter County Library  
  • Dr. Trey Berry, President, Southern Arkansas University  
  • Jennifer Chilcoat, State Librarian, Arkansas State Library 
  • Dr. Michael Dougan, Professor Emeritus, Arkansas State University 
  • Dr. Larry Foley, Chair, Walter J. Lemke Department of Journalism, University of Arkansas  
  • Matt Foster, Dean of Academics, Little Rock Christian Academy 
  • Dr. Cherisse Jones-Branch, Associate Professor, Arkansas State University 
  • Dr. Guy Lancaster, Editor, The Butler Center for Arkansas Studies  
  • Dr. Patsy Ramsey, Senior Lecturer, Department of History, University of Central Arkansas 
  • Aaron Sadler, Communications Director, Arkansas Press Association 
  • Joshua Youngblood, Research and Outreach Services Librarian, University of Arkansas Library

 

 

Digitized Newspapers

Below is the complete list of Arkansas newspaper titles that have been digitized along with information about each of the newspapers. To view digitized issues and begin your research visit chroniclingamerica.loc.gov

 

Little Rock is the center of Arkansas geographically as well as politically, serving as the state capital and county seat of Pulaski County. It is on the southern side of the Arkansas River and extends to the foothills of the Ozark Plateau, the Delta leading to the Mississippi River, and the plains stretching into Texas. In 1821, the territorial capital moved to Little Rock from Arkansas Post. Little Rock was incorporated in 1831 as a town in Arkansas Territory and incorporated as a city in 1835. The next year, Arkansas became the 25th state in the United States with Little Rock as the capital.

The Arkansas Advocate was the second paper published in Arkansas Territory, beginning in Little Rock in March 1830. Charles Pierre Bertrand was the founder and editor of the paper, which he published weekly. Robert Crittenden, first Territorial Secretary and acting Governor, contributed many articles to The Arkansas Advocate. A month after starting the Advocate, Bertrand married Crittenden's sister-in-law and they later named their son after Robert Crittenden.

Bertrand studied law under Crittenden and went on to hold several political offices, including State Treasurer, member of the House of Representatives, and Little Rock Mayor. Bertrand opposed secession from the United States and some historians credit him with delaying the start of the Civil War by dissuading Arkansans from attacking the Federal Arsenal in Little Rock.

Bertrand intended for the Advocate to be politically and religiously neutral, but in actual practice, it supported the politics of the editors. Early Advocate issues backed the Republican party, which soon became the National Republication party and then the Whig party. It was the first paper to suggest Arkansas become a state, as Benjamin Desha wrote an article supporting statehood in 1831. Democrats at the time opposed statehood, concerned that taxes would be too high for the small Arkansas population.

At first, Bertrand was friendly with the Democratic The Arkansas Gazette (1819-1836), the first newspaper in Arkansas. Bertrand previously worked for William Edward Woodruff, the paper's founder and editor. However, in 1830, Woodruff published an editorial from someone using the name "Jaw-Bone" that maligned Bertrand, after which the newspapers were hostile and published pointed articles about the other newspapers' editors.

Albert Pike wrote letters for the Advocate, and Bertrand sent prominent Whigs Crittenden and Jesse Turner to bring him to Little Rock to work at the Advocate. Pike became associate editor and in 1835 purchased the paper from Bertrand. Pike used the Advocate to promote Whig Party politics.

Charles E. Rice and Archibald Coulter ran the paper for several years under Pike. Coulter became Pike's partner in 1837. That same year, the Advocate merged with The Arkansas Weekly Times (1836-1837) to become the Arkansas Times and Advocate (1837-1844). After the merger, John Reed ran the newspaper with Pike contributing some articles.

After changing ownership and politics multiple times over the years, including a brief stint as a Democratic newspaper, the Times and Advocate was discontinued in 1844.

Little Rock, in central Arkansas, is the county seat of Pulaski County and the capital city. Pulaski County, one of the first five counties in Arkansas, was established in 1818. The county includes the Ouachita Mountains, Mississippi Alluvial Plain, and Coastal Plain. Little Rock was incorporated as a city in 1835 and was a hub of activity early in the state's history. Construction on the statehouse building began in 1833 along the banks of the Arkansas River. Both the county government and state government worked in the statehouse until 1883.

In 1843, Democrats in Little Rock needed a new newspaper, as the Arkansas State Gazette (1836-1850) shifted its affiliation from Democratic to Whig after an ownership change. The Arkansas Banner was founded by Archibald Yell in 1843 to be the voice of the Democrats, under the publishing name the Democratic Central Committee of the State of Arkansas. Dr. Solon Borland worked as editor with Elbert Hartwell English, who was also his associate at their joint law firm. Borland had writing experience from working at several newspapers in Memphis, Tennessee. The Banner soon changed publisher names to Borland & Farley, with Borland still working as editor.

Borland quickly began writing pointed articles about the Gazette editor, Benjamin John Borden. These jabs led to physical fights and finally a pistol duel between the two. Borland won the duel by shooting Borden. Since Borland was a doctor, he proceeded to patch Borden's gunshot wound. This led to a great friendship between the two.

Borland worked at the Banner until the start of the Mexican American War in 1845, at which time he was elected major of the Arkansas Mounted Infantry Regiment and left for Mexico.

Archibald Hamilton Rutherford took charge of the Banner next, and he ran it until 1846. Since the Banner was the voice of the Democrats, Rutherford was carefully chosen by the Democratic Party to run the paper. He had been a county judge in Clark County and clerk of the circuit court. Later he was elected to the Arkansas State Legislature for several terms and appointed deputy clerk of the United States court at Little Rock.

After Rutherford left in 1846, Lambert Jeffrey Reardon took over. He hired Lambert A. Whitely as junior editor. Reardon and Whitely were also involved in editorial and physical fights over personal insults with other newspaper editors. In one such physical fight, Borland, one of the previous Banner editors, happened to be passing by and joined in to prevent Reardon from shooting his opponent. Apparently, Borland did not want that fight to have the same outcome as his own newspaper duel.

Whitely eventually took control of the Banner, and in 1851 he added "Democratic" to the masthead, creating the Arkansas Democratic Banner. The next year he sold the paper and the name changed to The True Democrat (1852-1857) under publishers Richard Henry Johnson and Reuben S. Yerkes.

https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82007022/

The "True Democrat" (1852-57) was first printed on September 7, 1852, in Little Rock, Arkansas by owners and publishers Richard Henry Johnson and Reuben S. Yerkes, with Johnson serving as editor. Its preceding title, the Arkansas Democratic Banner (1851-52), was changed to the "True Democrat" for political reasons. The new publishers described the reason for the name change as "renewed assurances of fidelity to the noble principles of our party... we unfurl to our patrons and the public--'THE TRUE DEMOCRAT.'" The "True Democrat" and its successors--"Arkansas True Democrat" (1857-62) and "True Democrat" (1862-63)--were published as weeklies. Daily editions were published for a short time, including the "Daily True Democrat" (1861) and the "True Democrat Bulletin" (1862-?), but these editions ended due to financial constraints and lack of support. For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82014282/.

On May 5, 1883, J.C. McKetham and the brothers B.F. Kelley and Robert J. Kelley created the "Brinkley Argus" (1883-current) and served as the paper's proprietors and editors. Robert J. Kelley sold his interest to J.C. McKetham, and eight years later, in 1891, William Blount Folsom purchased the newspaper. William Folsom, serving as editor, published the paper with his wife, Harriette M. Doty "H.M. Folsom," who served as the paper's business manager. Published weekly, the four-to-eight-page newspaper advertised itself as having the largest circulation in Monroe County in the 1890s. For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn91050004/.

Carlisle, in Lonoke County, is slightly east of Little Rock. In the 1870s, fertile soil and plentiful water attracted the first European settlers. A small residential community, it was incorporated in 1878. Carlisle was the first place rice was grown on the Grand Prairie, and rice continues to be a cornerstone of the Carlisle economy. In addition to farming, dairy production was another early industry, with several milk and creamery factories in operation. The Memphis and Little Rock Railroad (later the Rock Island Railroad), ran down Main Street to stop at passenger and freight depots and to ship out the farming and dairy products to other parts of the country.

The Carlisle Independent, the first and only newspaper based in Carlisle, began in 1905 under Thomas P. Young. Young worked as publisher and editor, issuing the paper once a week on Thursdays. For the first few years the Independent ran as a non-political paper, printing news about Carlisle and the surrounding communities in Fulton and Sharp Counties. In 1907, Ernest Ellis took over the Independent, changing it to a Democratic paper.

Jewel Lester Matthews, Sr. took over in 1914 and ran the Independent for two years before turning it over to Clifford R. Griffin. Griffin also ran the paper for two years and then sold it to Edward M. Williams in 1918. Williams stayed with the Independent for several years, using his extensive newspaper experience to promote the welfare of Carlisle.

Williams's father, M. R. Williams, was also a newspaper publisher. He ran the Salisbury Press-Spectator (1881-current) in Missouri, where Edward and his brothers C. C. Williams and Thomas Williams learned the newspaper business. After learning the trade, Edward moved to Arkansas City, Arkansas and published the New Enterprise (18??-19??) with John W. Davis. Edward's next paper was in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) at Afton, where he founded the Afton Advance (1896-1???) with C. C. Williams. Edward moved back to Missouri and founded another newspaper before returning to Arkansas. Edward first lived in Stuttgart, where he published the Free Press (1889-192?) with his other brother Thomas Williams. Edward worked on that paper for several years before moving to Carlisle and buying the Independent. Circulation of the Independent increased under Edward, who was a progressive man.

In 1963, Cone Magie and Betty Magie purchased the Independent. The Magie family owned several newspapers in the area, operating under Magie Enterprises, Inc. In 2006 they sold their company, including the Carlisle Independent, to the Stephens Media Group.

In 2017, the Carlisle Independent merged with the Cabot Star-Herald (1956-current) and the Lonoke Democrat (1914-current) to become the Lonoke County Democrat. In 2018 the Lonoke County Democrat ceased publication.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn92050006/.

Rison is the Cleveland County seat in southeastern Arkansas. The county, created in 1873, was originally called Dorsey County. It became Cleveland County in 1885 after a change in the reputation of U.S. Senator Stephen Dorsey due to the Star Route scandal. It was renamed after the popular President Grover Cleveland.

Samuel Wesley Fordyce, surveyor for the Texas and St. Louis Railroad, chose the location and town name of Rison. The town was incorporated in 1890 and the next year people voted in a special election to move the county seat to Rison from Toledo after a fire destroyed the courthouse there. The Cleveland County Courthouse was built in Rison in 1911. The railroad's presence continued to be critical for the town, as the economy was based on selling cotton and lumber down the railroad line. Eventually, cotton and other large-scale farming declined in the area because of the ways that they deplete the soil of nutrients.

In 1888, George H. Tisdale started the Cleveland County Herald at Rison. It was a Democratic paper published on Thursdays. Sallie Irene Robinson worked briefly as editor for Tisdale, and by 1893 had purchased the paper.

Robinson learned the newspaper business from her uncle, Leon Roussan, who ran the Osecola Times (1870-current) in Osecola, Arkansas. Robinson moved to Rison in 1892 or 1893 and quickly took over the Herald. In 1895, she married lawyer William "Billie" Joseph Stanfield, to become Sallie Robinson-Stanfield. She is the first recorded woman in Arkansas to hyphenate her last name after marriage. Together they had five children and Robinson-Stanfield taught them all the newspaper business. In 1897 Stanfield took over managing the newspaper while Robinson-Stanfield focused on raising their children. In 1906 William died suddenly, likely from tuberculosis. Robinson-Stanfield briefly resumed running the Herald, then sold it to James Monroe Raines. Raines leased the paper to various editors.

In 1912 Sallie Robinson-Stanfield bought the paper back and again worked as manager and editor. In 1915 she married John Clayton Riley, editor of the Blade (1???-1929) in Walnut Ridge, Arkansas. At this point, she changed her name to Sallie Riley. She sold the paper for a final time to Henry Burgess Dixon, Sr. in 1915 and moved up to Walnut Ridge.

Dixon ran the Herald for a few years but died in the 1918 influenza pandemic. Annie L. Hughes Dixon, his widow, sold the paper to local businessmen, who published the paper under the News Publishing Company. Ethel M. Sumerow worked as editor until her death in 1922.

Calvin Alpheus Stanfield, son of Sallie Riley, ran the paper for a year before selling it to Guy Mack Sadler and Harold Davis Sadler in 1923. The Sadlers sold their interest to Leland Callaway Ackerman by 1929, but in 1933 Guy Sadler bought the paper back. The Sadler family (Guy Sadler, William "Bill" Sadler, Stan Sadler) ran the Herald until 2002, when they sold it to Britt Talent. Stan Sadler continues to work as editor. The Herald is the longest-running newspaper in Cleveland County.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90050296/.

Des Arc, the first town established in Prairie County, is located on the White River in the Delta region of eastern Arkansas. Antebellum Des Arc acted as a gateway between Memphis, Tennessee and the rest of Arkansas, and as a principal distribution center for produce and lumber. The Butterfield Overland Mail Company ran through Des Arc in the late 1850s, which increased the number of people traveling through the area.

The Des Arc Citizen (1854-186?) was the first newspaper in Prairie County, established in September 1854 by John C. Morrill. Published weekly, issues were four pages long and focused on state politics, the Methodist Episcopal Church, agriculture, development projects for railroads and river levees, and news from Memphis. In 1861, a new twice-weekly edition, the Des Arc Semi-Weekly Citizen, was published simultaneously. The new edition was short-lived, and later that same year the newspaper returned to a singular weekly edition called the Des Arc Weekly Citizen (186?-1).

In the lead up to the Civil War, the Des Arc Citizen supported leaving the Union. Disagreeing with secessionist views, Weston H. Rhea created the Constitutional Union (1860-1) in Des Arc and served as both proprietor and editor. The Constitutional Union, whose masthead stated, "The Constitution, the Union, and the Enforcement of the Laws," supported staying in the Union. This four-page weekly paper focused on state and national politics, with articles discussing international opinions on American politics. Recurring features included "Poetical" and "Telegraphic!" sections. The Constitutional Union was short lived, ending after only five months. During the Civil War, Union Major General Samuel Ryan Curtis captured Des Arc, and the town was partially destroyed. TheCitizen suspended publication due to the war.

During the Reconstruction era, the Citizen (1866-7) resumed publication in 1866 with Elijah H. Poe and James H. Balding as proprietors and N.B. Gair as editor. In its first issue on February 20, 1866, the newspaper encouraged the rebuilding of Des Arc and praised the last six months of progress. The newspaper stated, "Many of her old citizens, scattered to the four winds of heaven by the fortunes or misfortunes of the war, are returning to Des Arc, bankrupt as to means, but willing, and anxious to contribute their mite [sic] in rebuilding this once pleasant and lovely town...." In June 1866, the partnership between Poe and Balding was dissolved, and Poe served as sole proprietor until January 1867 when he partnered with Allen C. Mathews. Balding continued as publisher until the end of 1866. In February 1867, the newspaper's name changed to the Des Arc Weekly Citizen (1867-7?).

For more information about this title visit: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87090585/

The Conway Log Cabin (189?-1901) and succeeding Log Cabin Democrat (1901-82) were printed in Conway, the county seat of Faulkner County in central Arkansas. Faulkner County was formed in 1873 as one of nine counties established during Reconstruction. Named after Colonel Sanford Faulkner, composer of "The Arkansas Traveler," the county consists of river valleys, hills, and prairie lands in the north.

The Log Cabin (1879-8?) was created by Abel F. Livingston in 1879, and named after the Whig political party symbol. In the 1880s and 1890s, the newspaper changed ownership several times before John W. Underhill resumed full control of the paper in the late 1890s and changed its name to the Conway Log Cabin (189?-1901). The Cabin, along with other local Conway newspapers, was published by the Underhill's Conway Printing Company. Originally Republican in its political views, the newspaper had become Democratic when Underhill first took control of it in the 1880s. The Conway Log Cabin focused on local and national news with a "News of the World" section, and covered the placement of the cornerstone of the new state capitol on November 17, 1900. On June 19, 1900, a fire destroyed the Conway Printing Company plant, including the equipment used to publish the Conway Log Cabin and the Conway Democrat (1888-1901). The publishing company recovered quickly and bought new supplies in St. Louis, Missouri.

In September 1901, the Conway Log Cabin and the Conway Democrat consolidated into the weekly Log Cabin Democrat (1901-82). After Underhill died in 1906, his stepson Francis Edward "Frank" Robins, Sr. became the editor and later bought the plant. The Robins family was involved with the newspaper for five generations. A daily edition of the Log Cabin Democrat (1908-current) was established on September 14, 1908, and is published to this day. Both the weekly and daily editions focused on national and international news. The paper covered the First World War in great detail, and published articles of interest such as "From a Nurse in Warring Germany." The newspapers also kept up with local and state news, such as the debate over wet and dry counties. The colleges in Conway were of particular interest, including the Arkansas State Normal College, now the University of Central Arkansas; Hendrix College; and the Central Baptist College for Women, now Central Baptist College.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051194/.

The Courier-Index, located in Marianna, is a consolidation of two well-established papers in Lee County, the Marianna Index and The Lee County Courier. Located along the L'Anguille River in the delta, the city's economy was based in agriculture, particularly cotton production. Marianna had an early influx of people, many coming from the Carolinas, but the county's population ceased to grow as rapidly with the onset of the Civil War.

L. M. Benham founded the Marianna Index, the older of the two papers, on a Saturday in August 1874. Benham published the paper using hand-set type and a hand-fed press. The debut issue stated, "We intend to have a paper that the people of our county will not be ashamed of, and that all, someday, may feel proud of it." After only a few months of publication, Benham sold the paper to Hutton, Anderson & Co., and H. N. Hutton became the publisher. It was sold several more times before the final transfer in 1917 to H. M Jackson, who purchased both the Marianna Index and the Lee County Courier, combining them two years later to form the Courier-Index.

The Marianna Index covered a wide range of topics on a seven-column layout that included poetry, editorials, and general essays, as well as national news. Subscriptions to the paper were advertised at $2.50/year and the general mission of the paper was to "defend the truth, support what is right…oppose all cliques, clan or leagues, or anything else that tends to corrupt the ballot box." The city of Marianna faced many trials during the time of the Index's print run, including intermittent outbreaks of yellow fever and smallpox and fires that gutted the city. An article covering the first yellow fever scare stated, "till  it could be ascertained whether the rumor was true that there were several cases in that town, guards were posted on all roads leading into Marianna and the City Marshall, John Russell, was allowed $6.00 a day for guard expense. The quarantine cost the town $52.00 for guard duty and $2.39 for telegrams."

While the Civil War impeded the town's growth, the end of the war brought an economic resurgence as the city adjusted to life in peacetime. New businesses were established and there was a great deal of new construction. As a result of the town's growth, in 1904, seventeen years after the Marianna Index was founded, Colonel James Wood, a farmer with an interest in politics, started a rival paper, the Lee County Courier. On September 4, 1897, the Lee County Courier boasted,"public improvements...kept pace with and often outstripped the growth of the town. Its several miles of sidewalks, made of two-inch plank, are kept in perfect repair, make it possible to go all over the town in rainy weather without a lady's slippers being soiled…." Wood and his nephew, T. E. Wood, edited the Lee County Courier for 27 years before selling it to H. M. Jackson in 1917. Jackson continued to publish the two rival papers separately until he combined them in 1919 as the Courier-Index.

In The Courier-Index, A. G Samuel, W. G. Hoyle, and Editor H. M. Jackson wrote front page columns about life in the city. When Jackson died in 1934, his wife and son took over the business until 1937 when they sold the paper to John B. Howse who became publisher, with Howard Hicks as editor from 1937-39. Mrs. Jackson regained the paper in 1939. The paper changed hands in the 1940s, again the 1980s, and most recently in 2016, when it was purchased by Argent Arkansas News Media and incorporated into the existing Times-Herald.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051338/.

Before the Iron Mountain Railway reached Southwest Arkansas, Nevada County was primarily a sparsely populated agricultural settlement near the Little Missouri River. It was the 63rd county in Arkansas, formed during Reconstruction from lands previously in Hempstead, Ouachita, and Columbia counties. Prescott, the county seat, is 100 miles southwest of Little Rock.

The first post office opened in Prescott in November 1873. Two years later, The Prescott Banner, Nevada County's first newspaper, was established by brothers, Eugene E. and W. B. White. Over the next two years, the paper's name changed three times, from The Prescott Banner to the Prescott Clipper. Eugene E. White also opened the Nevada Picayune on February 14, 1878 as editor. He remained until he left for Hot Springs in 1883 to open the Daily Herald. At that point, his brother, W. B. White, took over the paper.

The Nevada Picayune was both a democratic and populist paper over its tenure. It had a seven-column folio and was printed on Wednesdays and Saturdays. In January 1906, editor C. B. Andrews lost everything in a fire that destroyed the newspaper office. Employing the honor system, Andrews asked all subscribers and debtors to contact him. He reopened the Picayune in the Brooks building on East Front Street.

The most notable Picayune employee was Fredrick W. Allsopp. He worked for free at the Nevada County Picayune for thirteen weeks in the printing department before moving to Little Rock to begin his 40-year career at The Arkansas Gazette. From the mailroom, Allsopp worked his way up to Secretary and Business Manager of the statewide newspaper before building a hotel, opening a bookstore, and publishing five books.

The Nevada Picayune closed its doors in September 2018, after 140 years of publication.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051256/.

Paragould, Arkansas is situated just across the Missouri border in the northeastern region of the state in Greene County. At the time of settlement, it had few roads and many obstructions, including swampland and an abundance of timber. Sitting atop Crowley's Ridge, early pioneers took advantage of the lush terrain and uncommon hardwood trees to create a booming timber industry. As the railroad moved in, so did the people, flocking to town to work in timber mills and factories.

As a result of the booming economy, in late 1886 J. R. Taylor founded the Paragould Press. After successfully working on newspapers in Jackson and Memphis, Tennessee, Taylor settled in Jonesboro, Arkansas in 1883, where he became editor and part-owner of the Jonesboro Democrat, followed by a stint as mayor. After resigning from politics and selling off his interest in the Jonesboro Democrat (later to become The Jonesboro Sun), Taylor moved to Paragould. There, he owned the paper until 1888 when he sold it to W. A. H. McDaniel in order to, once again, run for and return to the state senate. Only a short time later, after pulling out of his run for senate, Taylor went into competition with McDaniel when he established The Greene County Record in 1889. During this time period, according to historian Myrl Rhine Mueller in A History of Green County, Arkansas, "there was a succession of small newspapers published in Paragould. So fast did they rise and fall, exchange publishers and editors, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to sort them out chronologically." The News-Letter, edited by Charles E. Stewart, eventually combined with McDaniel's paper.

In 1893, Greene County mill owner and farmer Ross Coffman went into business with editor W. P. Adams and together they formed The Daily Soliphone. Adams invented the word soliphone by combining the Latin word for sun (sol) and the Greek word for phonics (phone) and joining them with an "i," making "soliphone." Despite its unique title, the paper was poorly managed and lacked sufficient funding. In order to raise capital, Adams mortgaged the publishing equipment with his rival, McDaniel. Later the two came into conflict and McDaniel foreclosed on the mortgage. Adams's paper was left without a press. With no ability to produce the paper, McDaniel sought the help of local Paragould businessman and bank official, M. F. Collier. With financial backing, he was able to continue publication, under the editorship of P. W. Moss until, despite his best efforts, McDaniel was forced to sell the paper. The paper was once again purchased by Taylor and was subsequently turned into two separate papers – The Paragould Daily Press, sent daily to city subscribers, and The Weekly Soliphone, which had a weekly rural circulation.

After Taylor's death in 1917, Griffin Smith became the very well-respected and successful editor of both papers. Upon his retirement, Smith said, "I have been in the newspaper business almost twenty-five years; during that period no successive six months have passed by during which my papers have not engaged in a fight of some kind." The papers continued to change hands and on July 1, 1959 the paper consolidated with the Paragould Daily Press and was subsequently issued as the Paragould Daily Press-Soliphone, a morning rural edition. The Paragould Daily Press was then issued concurrently as an afternoon, city edition.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051437/.

The True Democrat (1852-7) was first printed on September 7, 1852, in Little Rock, Arkansas by owners and publishers Richard Henry Johnson and Reuben S. Yerkes, with Johnson serving as editor. Its preceding title, the Arkansas Democratic Banner (1851-2), was changed to the True Democrat for political reasons. The new publishers described the reason for the name change as "renewed assurances of fidelity to the noble principles of our party... we unfurl to our patrons and the public--'THE TRUE DEMOCRAT.'" The True Democrat and its successors--Arkansas True Democrat (1857-62) and True Democrat (1862-3)--were published as weeklies. Daily editions were published for a short time, including the Daily True Democrat (1861) and the True Democrat Bulletin (1862-?), but these editions ended due to financial constraints and lack of support.

Like most antebellum newspapers in Little Rock, the True Democrat focused on politics. It supported the Democratic Party, and during the 1860 elections supported former editor Johnson for Governor and John Cabell Breckinridge for President. Both candidates lost, and Johnson returned to his position as editor after the elections. When political events escalated into the Civil War, Arkansas officially seceded from the Union on May 6, 1861, to join the Confederate States of America. In early 1862, Johnson published relatively up-to-date information on the war by coordinating with and receiving reports from soldiers in various Arkansas regiments. This arrangement ended when military officials ordered soldiers to cease disclosing military activities. Johnson reported that "our military leaders wisely keep their own counsels, and we content ourself [sic] with chronicling the result when it happens, instead of the intentions which may be lost by a premature disclosure."

Throughout the Civil War, newspapers in Arkansas struggled to overcome shortages of personnel and paper. On April 3, 1862, Johnson calculated that "by issuing on a half-sheet we will have paper enough for twelve months." For the True Democrat, the paper shortage was compounded by financial difficulties caused by the high number of delinquent subscribers. In July 1863, the number of True Democrat readers was estimated at 20,000 with only 10,000 subscribers. The publishers attempted to save the newspaper by using a paper supplier in Georgia, but this plan failed when shipments could no longer cross the Mississippi River due to the Siege of Vicksburg in 1863. The True Democrat ran out of paper, and on July 8, 1863, the True Democrat published its last issue on wrapping paper. The newspaper did not resume after the war.

For more information on this title visist, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051466/

Dermott is located in Chicot County, which is in the southeastern corner of Arkansas bordering Louisiana. The town was founded in a bayou in the 1840s and grew in the 1870s and 80s when railroads began passing through. In the early 20th century, Dermott's economy focused on timber and agriculture, and the town was thriving. It remained a major economic center until the Great Depression, and flourished again during World War II, with several mills and gins operating in the area. The town started declining in the 1950s when timber mills left and farms began mechanizing.

Dermott did not have its own newspaper until decades after it was founded. In 1910 J. A. Watkins created a local newspaper, the Dermott News. The Dermott News had many different publishers during its almost 70-year run. In 1911 alone, the paper changed hands several times. The next year, Gilbert Earle Kinney purchased it, bringing stability to the paper. He remained editor and publisher until his death in 1938.

In 1939 Joe W. Sitlington purchased the paper and worked as the publisher until 1946. The paper changed hands rapidly again, from the Dermott News Publishing Company to W. W. Mundy in 1947. Mundy stayed with the paper until 1958, when he sold it to F. N. Carnahan. In 1961, LeRoy Tyson and his wife purchased the paper, and Tyson worked as the editor.

Another local Dermott paper began in 1909, the Dermott Industrial Chronicle (1909-1921). This was an African American paper started by A. R. Raiford and later published by I. J. Bailey. In 1914, the Dermott News office was destroyed in a fire, but the paper remained in publication thanks to the Chronicle. The Chronicle allowed the Dermott News to use its offices for publishing until it assembled a new office. Fires were common at the time, and the Chronicle's offices burned in 1921. Unlike the Dermott News, the Chronicle ceased to exist after its disastrous fire.

The Dermott News published every Thursday about local and state news, as well as national and international events. Local news included updates about people traveling, moving to the area, and attending activities like the theatre. One page of the paper had a new chapter of a novel for readers to follow every week. The Dermott News supported its local community by hosting contests and offering prizes, such as a Meyer & Sons piano. It had advertisements for wider events, such as the Chicot County Fair and Arkansas State Fair. Editors were vocal about supporting the temperance movement and keeping alcohol out of Arkansas. The paper supported the Democratic Party and even helped collect money for the Wilson-Marshall presidential campaign. The Dermott News also kept its readers informed about important international events, including World War I.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90050260/.

Des Arc, the first town established in Prairie County, is located on the White River in the Delta region of eastern Arkansas. Antebellum Des Arc acted as a gateway between Memphis, Tennessee and the rest of Arkansas, and as a principal distribution center for produce and lumber. The Butterfield Overland Mail Company ran through Des Arc in the late 1850s, which increased the number of people traveling through the area.

The Des Arc Citizen (1854-186?) was the first newspaper in Prairie County, established in September 1854 by John C. Morrill. Published weekly, issues were four pages long and focused on state politics, the Methodist Episcopal Church, agriculture, development projects for railroads and river levees, and news from Memphis. In 1861, a new twice-weekly edition, the Des Arc Semi-Weekly Citizen, was published simultaneously. The new edition was short-lived, and later that same year the newspaper returned to a singular weekly edition called the Des Arc Weekly Citizen (186?-1).

In the lead up to the Civil War, the Des Arc Citizen supported leaving the Union. Disagreeing with secessionist views, Weston H. Rhea created the Constitutional Union (1860-1) in Des Arc and served as both proprietor and editor. The Constitutional Union, whose masthead stated, "The Constitution, the Union, and the Enforcement of the Laws," supported staying in the Union. This four-page weekly paper focused on state and national politics, with articles discussing international opinions on American politics. Recurring features included "Poetical" and "Telegraphic!" sections. The Constitutional Union was short lived, ending after only five months. During the Civil War, Union Major General Samuel Ryan Curtis captured Des Arc, and the town was partially destroyed. TheCitizen suspended publication due to the war.

During the Reconstruction era, the Citizen (1866-7) resumed publication in 1866 with Elijah H. Poe and James H. Balding as proprietors and N.B. Gair as editor. In its first issue on February 20, 1866, the newspaper encouraged the rebuilding of Des Arc and praised the last six months of progress. The newspaper stated, "Many of her old citizens, scattered to the four winds of heaven by the fortunes or misfortunes of the war, are returning to Des Arc, bankrupt as to means, but willing, and anxious to contribute their mite [sic] in rebuilding this once pleasant and lovely town...." In June 1866, the partnership between Poe and Balding was dissolved, and Poe served as sole proprietor until January 1867 when he partnered with Allen C. Mathews. Balding continued as publisher until the end of 1866. In February 1867, the newspaper's name changed to the Des Arc Weekly Citizen (1867-7?).

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87090585/.

Des Arc, the first town established in Prairie County, is located on the White River in the Delta region of eastern Arkansas. Antebellum Des Arc acted as a gateway between Memphis, Tennessee and the rest of Arkansas, and as a principal distribution center for produce and lumber. The Butterfield Overland Mail Company ran through Des Arc in the late 1850s, which increased the number of people traveling through the area.

The Des Arc Citizen (1854-186?) was the first newspaper in Prairie County, established in September 1854 by John C. Morrill. Published weekly, issues were four pages long and focused on state politics, the Methodist Episcopal Church, agriculture, development projects for railroads and river levees, and news from Memphis. In 1861, a new twice-weekly edition, the Des Arc Semi-Weekly Citizen, was published simultaneously. The new edition was short-lived, and later that same year the newspaper returned to a singular weekly edition called the Des Arc Weekly Citizen (186?-1).

In the lead up to the Civil War, the Des Arc Citizen supported leaving the Union. Disagreeing with secessionist views, Weston H. Rhea created the Constitutional Union (1860-1) in Des Arc and served as both proprietor and editor. The Constitutional Union, whose masthead stated, "The Constitution, the Union, and the Enforcement of the Laws," supported staying in the Union. This four-page weekly paper focused on state and national politics, with articles discussing international opinions on American politics. Recurring features included "Poetical" and "Telegraphic!" sections. The Constitutional Union was short lived, ending after only five months. During the Civil War, Union Major General Samuel Ryan Curtis captured Des Arc, and the town was partially destroyed. TheCitizen suspended publication due to the war.

During the Reconstruction era, the Citizen (1866-7) resumed publication in 1866 with Elijah H. Poe and James H. Balding as proprietors and N.B. Gair as editor. In its first issue on February 20, 1866, the newspaper encouraged the rebuilding of Des Arc and praised the last six months of progress. The newspaper stated, "Many of her old citizens, scattered to the four winds of heaven by the fortunes or misfortunes of the war, are returning to Des Arc, bankrupt as to means, but willing, and anxious to contribute their mite [sic] in rebuilding this once pleasant and lovely town...." In June 1866, the partnership between Poe and Balding was dissolved, and Poe served as sole proprietor until January 1867 when he partnered with Allen C. Mathews. Balding continued as publisher until the end of 1866. In February 1867, the newspaper's name changed to the Des Arc Weekly Citizen (1867-7?).

https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051370/

Forrest City, the seat of Saint Francis County in northeast Arkansas since 1874, is located on the western slope of Crowley's Ridge, a series of rolling hills in the Mississippi River Delta. Originally known as "Forrest's Town," the community grew up around the commissary established by Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest after the Civil War to supply workers clearing Crowley's Ridge for the Memphis & Little Rock Railroad.

Among the early businesses in Forrest City was the Forrest City Times (1871-1919), established by Thomas Fleming Oury Sr. the year the town was incorporated. Oury sold the weekly newspaper in 1883 and left Forrest City to work in Little Rock. In 1885, T.J. Hicks bought the Times, selling it one year later to Edward Lincoln Vadakin. Vadakin's father-in-law, Colonel Edwin Landvoigt, soon joined Vadakin as a co-proprietor/publisher and senior editor. During their tenure, the Times absorbed a competing newspaper, the Forrest City Democrat (1877-87) and in 1891 switched the day of publication from Saturday to Friday. A few years after Vadakin's death in 1915, the newspaper consolidated with the Forrest City Herald (1917-9) and became the Forrest City Times and Herald (1919-3?). A stock company was assembled to run the newspaper in 1918, with Landvoigt as vice president. Throughout 27 years of publication, the Times varied in size between four and 12 pages, with advertisements for December holiday shopping occasionally inflating its page count to 18.

Typically, content included local, state, and national news, plus a fictional story. Select international news was included, and by the start of the First World War in 1914 it became a prominent part of the newspaper. The railroad was important to the economy of Forrest City, and alleged freight discrimination in the form of inequitable freight rates became a problem in the late nineteenth century. In November 1894, a public remonstrance meeting was held against the Little Rock & Memphis Railroad Company, and a committee elected with Vadakin as secretary. The committee pushed for legal protection against unjust freight rates, which led to the formation of the Arkansas Railroad Commission in 1899. Politically, the newspaper was Democratic, and the October 8, 1887, issue stated, "The Times is, and has always been, and hopes ever to be, thoroughly Democratic. It has ever supported the Democratic nominees, and has always been sought after by the leading politicians."

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84022960/.

Green Forest, in Carroll County, is in northwest Arkansas along the border with Missouri. By the 1920s, industries in the area included farming, dairy, canning, timber mills, and marble and granite works.

In 1889, Herbert Spencer Holden purchased the Arkansas Tomahawk (1888-1889) newspaper plant in Green Forest and used the equipment to establish The Green Forest Tribune in 1890. Holden published the eight-page paper on Thursdays with no stated political affiliation. In 1891, the paper changed hands to Bertie B. Eslinger and George Camp, who labeled the paper as politically independent. Later that year, Willis Caswell Russell and his son Jesse Lewis Russell took over the paper, beginning the Russell family's long tenure at the Tribune.

The Russells continued the Tribune as a paper with an independent political stance, but they changed it to four-page issues. In 1895, Andrew Jackson Russell, brother of Jesse Russel, took over as editor for their father. Though the Tribune was listed in the newspaper directory as an independent publication, other Arkansas newspapers called the Tribune the leading Republican paper. From 1899 to 1900, Martin Butler Russell, brother of Andrew and Jesse Russell, wrote letters back to his brothers about his service in the Philippine-American War, which they published in the Tribune.

In 1905, the Russells sold the paper to Edward Clarence Cooper, who began publishing the Tribune on Saturdays with a Democratic slant. In 1907, Cooper sold the Tribune back to Jesse Russell, who returned the paper to being politically non-partisan. In 1911, Martin Russell took charge of the paper while Jesse was away temporarily. In a newspaper interview, Martin reminisced about the old newspaper days when there were prolific crimes to write about, such as stagecoach robberies, shootouts, and moonshiners coming to town with barrels of "shine." While in charge of the paper, Martin changed the publication day to Fridays.

Jesse Russell returned to the paper and continued as editor until 1914. When he retired, the Arkansas Democrat (1878-1991) wrote that he was regarded as one of the best newspaper men in the state and the oldest Republican editor.

In 1914, the Tribune was consolidated with the Green Forest Sentinel (1914-1914), after Sentinel owner Charles C. Reed bought the Tribune. The paper continued to publish under the Tribune title, since the Sentinel was just a few months old and did not have a following like the Tribune. The next year, Reed sold the Tribune to Lee Hewitt Smith and Margaret Elizabeth "Margie" Russell Smith, sister of the Russell brothers. Margie Smith continued the family tradition of running the Tribune.

In 1919, the Smith's sold the paper to Ertie Otis Allred, who had J.C. Pinkerton act as editor. This ended the Russell family's reign over the Green Forest Tribune. Allred held the paper for over ten years, and sold it in 1933 to William King Wharton, who continued to publish the paper for decades.

For more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051294/

McCrory, in Woodruff County, lies in the Delta region of the Mississippi River alluvial plain in northeastern Arkansas. The county was named for William Edward Woodruff, founder of the Arkansas Gazette (1819-1836), Arkansas's first newspaper. The area was sparsely populated before 1886, when the Iron Mountain Railroad established a line through northeastern Arkansas, attracting new settlers to the area. McCrory was one of the towns that grew up along the railroad line connecting Little Rock to Memphis, Tennessee. McCrory developed rapidly due to cotton farming, stock raising, and lumber mills. In the early- to mid-1900s McCrory was the commercial hub of Woodruff County. Historians credit Walter Wilson Raney, an enterprising newspaper publisher, with helping shape McCrory into a business center.

In McCrory, Raney began his newspaper career in the printing office of the Woodruff County News (1901-1910), run by Gustave W. Kramer. This began Raney's long newspaper career, though he also served the public in numerous other ways. After working for the Woodruff County News for two years, Raney left to be assistant postmaster. He later purchased interest in the Woodruff County News, which Charles M. James was running at the time. In 1909 he sold his interest and moved to Corning, Arkansas. Raney returned to McCrory just three months later to run the Woodruff County News. Finally, Raney started his own paper, the McCrory Enterprise (1911-19??), in 1911, working as the publisher and editor.

After Raney discontinued the Enterprise, there were no other papers in McCrory. It seems the people of McCrory wanted Raney to continue to be the voice of their city and county, though. Raney founded the Home News in McCrory in 1915, establishing the News as a Democratic paper published on Fridays. Raney printed in the masthead that the paper was "edited in the interest of McCrory and Woodruff County" and wrote in the first issue that citizens had solicited him to "give us a home paper." In 1918, Raney installed the first and only typesetting machine in the county to print the News.

In addition to his newspaper publications, Raney served as mayor of McCrory, county judge, state representative, and state senator. Dallas Tabor Herndon, first director of the Arkansas History Commission and author of the Centennial History of Arkansas, wrote that Raney was "a most stalwart champion of the Democratic principles." Raney inherited his father's undertaking business, which he ran as the only licensed embalmer in Woodruff County. He was the first person to have a motor hearse in the county. Raney also owned and managed the Jewel theatre, a moving-picture house, and the only billiard hall in town. These businesses, along with Raney's newspapers, contributed to the development of McCrory and its establishment as a business center.

Raney ended the Home News in 1922. The next year he started the Arkansas Central Leader (1923-1960), which became his longest-running paper.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90050115/.

Huttig, in Union County, is in southwestern Arkansas near the border with Louisiana. Most of Union County is forested, and so it follows that Huttig began as a timber company town after the Union Saw Mill Company built a railroad there in 1904. The Frost-Johnson Timber Company built the company town and named it Huttig after industrialist William Huttig, a friend of company president Clarence D. Johnson. Soon after Huttig was built, it had the largest sawmill and was the second largest city in the county until the oil boom in the 1920s. The lumber industry listed Huttig as a model town that was well planned and had many amenities in addition to the sawmill operation. The timber company built segregated houses, schools, stores, and a community house for its timber workers and families. Ownership of the timber company changed throughout the years, but the sawmills remained in operation.

On May 4, 1907, just a few years after the town was created, Charles Arthur Berry published the first issue of the Huttig News. Before starting the Huttig paper, Berry had begun a newspaper in Felsenthal, Arkansas, the Felsenthal Press (1904-19??), and issued it from 1904 to 1905. Felsenthal was also founded in 1904 and is four miles to the northeast of Huttig. Though the two towns were founded in the same year, Huttig was ultimately more successful. A flood in 1906 contributed to the slow growth of Felsenthal, as it halted plans to build a courthouse to serve as center of the judicial district. Felsenthal was even unincorporated in 1911, though it was later reincorporated.

Like many others, Berry was drawn over to Huttig, where he published his new Democratic paper on Saturdays. The News was the first and only newspaper to come out of Huttig. Readers at the time said that it was one of the most popular papers in Arkansas. Berry himself served as president of the Press Association and vice-president of the Arkansas National Editorial Association. While publishing the News, Berry also worked as postmaster for Huttig. In 1921, Berry left the News and Fred Myers Johnson took over. Like Berry, Johnson served as Huttig postmaster. Johnson continued as editor and publisher of the News, and the paper eventually ceased publication in 1955.

Berry seemed to follow the trends of the time, as he continually moved his printing business to the newest thriving town. El Dorado attracted him next due to the oil boom, and in 1921 Berry purchased the El Dorado Daily News (19??-1974) from J. S. Goodman. Others noticed that Berry sold an oil lease that same year for $12,000, and they marveled that he continued working in the newspaper business after acquiring so much money.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051318/.

Judsonia is in White County, Arkansas, along the lower Little Red River, in the northeast central region of the state. The southern half of modern Judsonia was originally a separate town called Prospect Bluff, which was situated the first highland bank on the northern side of the river. In 1870 the name Judsonia first appeared, and the town was incorporated ten days after Prospect Bluff in 1872. In 1874 the two towns chose to merge into one. That same year, the first strawberries were harvested, and they quickly became the dominant cash crop.

Edgar Curtis Kinney founded the Judsonia Advance in 1878. It began as an 8-page paper issued every Wednesday. Originally listed as politically neutral, the Advance changed its political affiliation multiple times during its run. The Advance advertised as a newspaper devoted to religious, educational, literary, and local matters and its motto was "Overcome prejudice. Let free thought and free speech be encouraged."

In 1886, Kinney sold the paper to Berton W. Briggs. Berton and his brother Flavel G. Briggs ran the Advance as a politically independent newspaper under their publishing group, the Briggs Brothers. They published the paper until 1889, at which time they sold it back to Kinney. Kinney ran the paper variously as Republican and independent.

Edgar Kinney was raised in New York and worked for the circus, traveling around the United States before settling in Arkansas. After moving to Arkansas, Kinney was heavily involved in the Arkansas State Horticultural Society and fruit farming, as was popular in Judsonia. He was an active Republican and president of the first Republican Convention held in White County. He also served as mayor of Judsonia. In the late 1800s he was the president of the Arkansas Press Association. One of his sons, Gilbert Earle Kinney, learned the newspaper trade from him and took over the Judsonia Advance in 1902. Around this time, the Advance's title changed officially to the Judsonia Weekly Advance.

Gilbert Kinney ran the Weekly Advance as a Republican paper until 1908. In 1909, O. R. Rich bought the paper and continued running it with a Republican perspective until 1914. Ralph C. Mann, Sr. owned the paper in 1915 and ran it as a Democratic paper until 1920. After purchasing the paper, Mann installed new printing machinery, including a cylinder press and linotype machine, and was able to increase his subscribers by the hundreds. In 1921, Mann changed the Weekly Advance to an independent affiliation, and in 1922 began publishing on Thursdays instead of Wednesdays. Mann's final change was a major one: he combined the Advance with The Bald Knob Eagle (1921-1922) to form the White County Record, published by the Mann Printing Company. The White County Record continued to circulate into the 21st century.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn91050157/.

The Little River News is located in Ashdown, Little River County, Arkansas, which is in the southwest corner of the state. This agricultural community has rich and fertile land, but its main industry is timber. Early settlers set up timber mills and, with the establishment of the railroad, transportation of goods moved from the river to the more efficient train. The city continued to grow and modernize with electricity, telephones, and gas services being installed across the county. Because of its position between Little River and the Red River, Ashdown has continued to attract industrial and manufacturing businesses, creating a thriving economy.

The Little River News was originally founded in Richmond, Arkansas, in 1888 by W. F. Joyner, with support from the Democrats of the county, as a paper directly opposing another local paper, The Pilot, which was sympathetic to the Populist Party. The Little River News has been credited by Little River County historian Bill Beasley with having "played a great part in defeating the Populist Party in Little River County." R. P. West purchased the paper and moved it from Richmond to Ashdown in 1892, where the name changed to the Ashdown Herald. In 1897, brothers O. T. and F. M. Graves purchased the Herald and changed the name back to the original Little River News. The brothers served as publishers for many years, and in 1908 the paper changed from a weekly to a semi-weekly publication. Before moving to Ashdown and purchasing the paper with his brother, O. T. Graves was in partnership with J. L. Cannon, and served alongside Cannon as editor and publisher of The De Queen Bee in Sevier County, Arkansas. After spending two years in Kansas City, O. T. Graves returned to Ashdown, and in partnership with L. E. Quinn, purchased The Little River News. He served as manager and editor of the paper. In 1912 Quinn retired, selling his interest to F. M. Graves who, once again, shared ownership of the press with his brother.

Today, The Little River News is still in production and is considered the oldest business institution in Little River County. In 1975 The Foreman Sun (1898-1974) consolidated with the Little River News and is currently published weekly on Thursdays.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90050316/.

The Conway Log Cabin (189?-1901) and succeeding Log Cabin Democrat (1901-82) were printed in Conway, the county seat of Faulkner County in central Arkansas. Faulkner County was formed in 1873 as one of nine counties established during Reconstruction. Named after Colonel Sanford Faulkner, composer of "The Arkansas Traveler," the county consists of river valleys, hills, and prairie lands in the north.

The Log Cabin (1879-8?) was created by Abel F. Livingston in 1879, and named after the Whig political party symbol. In the 1880s and 1890s, the newspaper changed ownership several times before John W. Underhill resumed full control of the paper in the late 1890s and changed its name to the Conway Log Cabin (189?-1901). The Cabin, along with other local Conway newspapers, was published by the Underhill's Conway Printing Company. Originally Republican in its political views, the newspaper had become Democratic when Underhill first took control of it in the 1880s. The Conway Log Cabin focused on local and national news with a "News of the World" section, and covered the placement of the cornerstone of the new state capitol on November 17, 1900. On June 19, 1900, a fire destroyed the Conway Printing Company plant, including the equipment used to publish the Conway Log Cabin and the Conway Democrat (1888-1901). The publishing company recovered quickly and bought new supplies in St. Louis, Missouri.

In September 1901, the Conway Log Cabin and the Conway Democrat consolidated into the weekly Log Cabin Democrat (1901-82). After Underhill died in 1906, his stepson Francis Edward "Frank" Robins, Sr. became the editor and later bought the plant. The Robins family was involved with the newspaper for five generations. A daily edition of the Log Cabin Democrat (1908-current) was established on September 14, 1908, and is published to this day. Both the weekly and daily editions focused on national and international news. The paper covered the First World War in great detail, and published articles of interest such as "From a Nurse in Warring Germany." The newspapers also kept up with local and state news, such as the debate over wet and dry counties. The colleges in Conway were of particular interest, including the Arkansas State Normal College, now the University of Central Arkansas; Hendrix College; and the Central Baptist College for Women, now Central Baptist College.

For more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86090230/

The Conway Log Cabin (189?-1901) and succeeding Log Cabin Democrat (1901-82) were printed in Conway, the county seat of Faulkner County in central Arkansas. Faulkner County was formed in 1873 as one of nine counties established during Reconstruction. Named after Colonel Sanford Faulkner, composer of "The Arkansas Traveler," the county consists of river valleys, hills, and prairie lands in the north.

The Log Cabin (1879-8?) was created by Abel F. Livingston in 1879, and named after the Whig political party symbol. In the 1880s and 1890s, the newspaper changed ownership several times before John W. Underhill resumed full control of the paper in the late 1890s and changed its name to the Conway Log Cabin (189?-1901). The Cabin, along with other local Conway newspapers, was published by the Underhill's Conway Printing Company. Originally Republican in its political views, the newspaper had become Democratic when Underhill first took control of it in the 1880s. The Conway Log Cabin focused on local and national news with a "News of the World" section, and covered the placement of the cornerstone of the new state capitol on November 17, 1900. On June 19, 1900, a fire destroyed the Conway Printing Company plant, including the equipment used to publish the Conway Log Cabin and the Conway Democrat (1888-1901). The publishing company recovered quickly and bought new supplies in St. Louis, Missouri.

In September 1901, the Conway Log Cabin and the Conway Democrat consolidated into the weekly Log Cabin Democrat (1901-82). After Underhill died in 1906, his stepson Francis Edward "Frank" Robins, Sr. became the editor and later bought the plant. The Robins family was involved with the newspaper for five generations. A daily edition of the Log Cabin Democrat (1908-current) was established on September 14, 1908, and is published to this day. Both the weekly and daily editions focused on national and international news. The paper covered the First World War in great detail, and published articles of interest such as "From a Nurse in Warring Germany." The newspapers also kept up with local and state news, such as the debate over wet and dry counties. The colleges in Conway were of particular interest, including the Arkansas State Normal College, now the University of Central Arkansas; Hendrix College; and the Central Baptist College for Women, now Central Baptist College.

 

For more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85033000/

Malvern, a town in southwestern Arkansas, is the Hot Spring County seat. Hot Spring County was created in 1829 from land originally part of Clark County. In 1873, Garland County was created using Hot Spring County lands, and it took with it the city of Hot Springs and all the natural springs from which the county had taken its name except for one. Though Hot Spring County no longer encompasses many springs, it does have plentiful mineral deposits that are important to local economies.

Incorporated as a town in 1876, Malvern was established in 1873 as a railway station for the Cairo and Fulton Railroad. It served as a transfer point from stagecoaches to train, moving goods and people along to Hot Springs and other cities. Malvern grew rapidly due to the railroad, and the county seat was moved from Rockport to Malvern in 1878. Malvern became a brick manufacturing center, with several brick plants operating in the area using the abundant clay deposits to manufacture bricks. In the 1920's, Acme Brick Company took over one of the local brick manufacturers. Clem Bottling Works was another industrial plant in Malvern, established in 1907 to manufacture and bottle soda.

In 1916, Julian Heard Beerstecher and his wife Kate Brice Beerstecher moved to Malvern and founded the Malvern Daily Record. It began as a four-page paper and eventually grew to an average of seven pages. The Beerstechers published the paper every day except Sundays. The Record was Democratic and focused on local community news, but it also reported some national and international events.

Before moving to Malvern, Julian Beerstecher worked at The Arkansas Gazette (1889-1991) and then as printing clerk in the state auditor's office. Beerstecher was an active Democrat and prominent in Malvern civic life. While publishing the Record, he also worked as the Malvern city clerk and later served as president of the Arkansas Press Association. In December 1916, Beerstecher leased the Malvern Times-Journal (1913-1923), and briefly ran both the Times-Journal and Daily Record. In 1947, the Beerstechers remodeled an office building and purchased a new typesetting machine for their printing business. Julian Beerstecher worked on the Record until his death in 1948.

After Beerstecher's death, his wife and daughters owned and operated the Record, with Kate Beerstecher acting as publisher, Frances A. Beerstecher as editor, and Alix Beerstecher Butler as business manager. Kate Beerstecher was a charter member of the Arkansas Newspaper Women's Association (now the Arkansas Press Women) established in 1949. The Record won third place in a national competition for the editorials written by Frances Beerstecher. When Kate Beerstecher died in 1967, her daughters continued running the paper. The next year, the sisters retired and sold the paper to William "Bill" Robert Whitehead, Sr. and Ray Kimball. In 1969 the Record changed to Tuesday through Saturday publications. The paper is currently owned by Horizon Publications, Inc.

For more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85032972/

 

The city of Mena lies in Polk County, Arkansas in the southwestern part of the state along the Oklahoma border. Mena is a popular tourist destination in the Ouachita National Forest for the Talimena Scenic Drive and Queen Wilhelmina State Park. It is part of the socio-economic region of Ark-La-Tex (which includes sections of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas). Mena was founded in 1896 as a stop along the Kansas City, Pittsburg & Gulf Railroad (later the Kansas City Southern Railway) developed by Arthur Stillwell. In 1898 the Polk County seat was moved from Dallas to Mena. Mena was advertised as a health spa city, though the main industries were timber, agriculture, and mineral extraction.

In 1896 Andrew Warner St. John established The Mena Weekly Star as one of the first newspapers in Mena. The paper's first publishing office was a small 16 x 24 foot building, which was a generous size for a city just-established in which many people were still living in tents. The office had a Fairhaven press, an 8 x 12 foot jobber, and a good supply of type. The Star was published every Wednesday by A. W. St. John & Sons. Before moving to Mena, Andrew St. John worked at the Carthage Evening Press (1891-1966) in Carthage, Missouri for about 16 years. At the Star, St. John worked with his younger son Roy Robert St. John. The Mena Weekly Star continued under that name until 1898, at which time it changed to The Mena Star. The Mena Star was published every Wednesday, then in 1899 it changed to Thursday publication. In 1904 the paper returned to its original name, The Mena Weekly Star, and continued to be published every Thursday.

In 1907, Andrew St. John died and his older son, Virgil W. St. John, joined his brother Roy St. John at the paper. Virgil had previously been living in Kansas City, Missouri, where he had worked at the Kansas City Journal (1897-1928). Upon his return to Mena, the Star was published by A. W. St. John's Sons. In 1911, the St. John family created the Star Publishing Company, which included Virgil St. John's son, Ernest Warner St. John. The next year, Virgil St. John bought out his brother, and in 1920 he became the sole owner and editor. The paper continued until 1977.

The Star was an independent newspaper, though it leaned toward a democratic position in reporting local and international news. In 1914, the Department of Journalism at the University of Oregon listed the Star as one of the best country weeklies in the United States. In 1921, the paper was honored again, this time by the Arkansas Press Association, as one of the top county weeklies of Arkansas based on news and editorial content. The Arkansas University Department of Journalism followed with the same accolade in 1922.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051214/.

The city of Mena lies in Polk County, Arkansas in the southwestern part of the state along the Oklahoma border. Mena is a popular tourist destination in the Ouachita National Forest for the Talimena Scenic Drive and Queen Wilhelmina State Park. It is part of the socio-economic region of Ark-La-Tex (which includes sections of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas). Mena was founded in 1896 as a stop along the Kansas City, Pittsburg & Gulf Railroad (later the Kansas City Southern Railway) developed by Arthur Stillwell. In 1898 the Polk County seat was moved from Dallas to Mena. Mena was advertised as a health spa city, though the main industries were timber, agriculture, and mineral extraction.

 In 1896 Andrew Warner St. John established The Mena Weekly Star as one of the first newspapers in Mena. The paper's first publishing office was a small 16 x 24 foot building, which was a generous size for a city just-established in which many people were still living in tents. The office had a Fairhaven press, an 8 x 12 foot jobber, and a good supply of type. The Star was published every Wednesday by A. W. St. John & Sons. Before moving to Mena, Andrew St. John worked at the Carthage Evening Press (1891-1966) in Carthage, Missouri for about 16 years. At the Star, St. John worked with his younger son Roy Robert St. John. The Mena Weekly Star continued under that name until 1898, at which time it changed to The Mena Star. The Mena Star was published every Wednesday, then in 1899 it changed to Thursday publication. In 1904 the paper returned to its original name, The Mena Weekly Star, and continued to be published every Thursday.

In 1907, Andrew St. John died and his older son, Virgil W. St. John, joined his brother Roy St. John at the paper. Virgil had previously been living in Kansas City, Missouri, where he had worked at the Kansas City Journal (1897-1928). Upon his return to Mena, the Star was published by A. W. St. John's Sons. In 1911, the St. John family created the Star Publishing Company, which included Virgil St. John's son, Ernest Warner St. John. The next year, Virgil St. John bought out his brother, and in 1920 he became the sole owner and editor. The paper continued until 1977.

The Star was an independent newspaper, though it leaned toward a democratic position in reporting local and international news. In 1914, the Department of Journalism at the University of Oregon listed the Star as one of the best country weeklies in the United States. In 1921, the paper was honored again, this time by the Arkansas Press Association, as one of the top county weeklies of Arkansas based on news and editorial content. The Arkansas University Department of Journalism followed with the same accolade in 1922.

Fore more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85032996/

The city of Mena lies in Polk County, Arkansas in the southwestern part of the state along the Oklahoma border. Mena is a popular tourist destination in the Ouachita National Forest for the Talimena Scenic Drive and Queen Wilhelmina State Park. It is part of the socio-economic region of Ark-La-Tex (which includes sections of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas). Mena was founded in 1896 as a stop along the Kansas City, Pittsburg & Gulf Railroad (later the Kansas City Southern Railway) developed by Arthur Stillwell. In 1898 the Polk County seat was moved from Dallas to Mena. Mena was advertised as a health spa city, though the main industries were timber, agriculture, and mineral extraction.

In 1896 Andrew Warner St. John established The Mena Weekly Star as one of the first newspapers in Mena. The paper's first publishing office was a small 16 x 24 foot building, which was a generous size for a city just-established in which many people were still living in tents. The office had a Fairhaven press, an 8 x 12 foot jobber, and a good supply of type. The Star was published every Wednesday by A. W. St. John & Sons. Before moving to Mena, Andrew St. John worked at the Carthage Evening Press (1891-1966) in Carthage, Missouri for about 16 years. At the Star, St. John worked with his younger son Roy Robert St. John. The Mena Weekly Star continued under that name until 1898, at which time it changed to The Mena Star. The Mena Star was published every Wednesday, then in 1899 it changed to Thursday publication. In 1904 the paper returned to its original name, The Mena Weekly Star, and continued to be published every Thursday.

In 1907, Andrew St. John died and his older son, Virgil W. St. John, joined his brother Roy St. John at the paper. Virgil had previously been living in Kansas City, Missouri, where he had worked at the Kansas City Journal (1897-1928). Upon his return to Mena, the Star was published by A. W. St. John's Sons. In 1911, the St. John family created the Star Publishing Company, which included Virgil St. John's son, Ernest Warner St. John. The next year, Virgil St. John bought out his brother, and in 1920 he became the sole owner and editor. The paper continued until 1977.

The Star was an independent newspaper, though it leaned toward a democratic position in reporting local and international news. In 1914, the Department of Journalism at the University of Oregon listed the Star as one of the best country weeklies in the United States. In 1921, the paper was honored again, this time by the Arkansas Press Association, as one of the top county weeklies of Arkansas based on news and editorial content. The Arkansas University Department of Journalism followed with the same accolade in 1922.

For more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051213/

Before the Iron Mountain Railway reached Southwest Arkansas, Nevada County was primarily a sparsely populated agricultural settlement near the Little Missouri River. It was the 63rd county in Arkansas, formed during Reconstruction from lands previously in Hempstead, Ouachita, and Columbia counties. Prescott, the county seat, is 100 miles southwest of Little Rock.

The first post office opened in Prescott in November 1873. Two years later, The Prescott Banner, Nevada County's first newspaper, was established by brothers, Eugene E. and W. B. White. Over the next two years, the paper's name changed three times, from The Prescott Banner to the Prescott Clipper. Eugene E. White also opened the Nevada Picayune on February 14, 1878 as editor. He remained until he left for Hot Springs in 1883 to open the Daily Herald. At that point, his brother, W. B. White, took over the paper.

The Nevada Picayune was both a democratic and populist paper over its tenure. It had a seven-column folio and was printed on Wednesdays and Saturdays. In January 1906, editor C. B. Andrews lost everything in a fire that destroyed the newspaper office. Employing the honor system, Andrews asked all subscribers and debtors to contact him. He reopened the Picayune in the Brooks building on East Front Street.

The most notable Picayune employee was Fredrick W. Allsopp. He worked for free at the Nevada County Picayune for thirteen weeks in the printing department before moving to Little Rock to begin his 40-year career at The Arkansas Gazette. From the mailroom, Allsopp worked his way up to Secretary and Business Manager of the statewide newspaper before building a hotel, opening a bookstore, and publishing five books.

The Nevada Picayune closed its doors in September 2018, after 140 years of publication.

For more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90050306/

Before the Iron Mountain Railway reached Southwest Arkansas, Nevada County was primarily a sparsely populated agricultural settlement near the Little Missouri River. It was the 63rd county in Arkansas, formed during Reconstruction from lands previously in Hempstead, Ouachita, and Columbia counties. Prescott, the county seat, is 100 miles southwest of Little Rock.

The first post office opened in Prescott in November 1873. Two years later, The Prescott Banner, Nevada County's first newspaper, was established by brothers, Eugene E. and W. B. White. Over the next two years, the paper's name changed three times, from The Prescott Banner to the Prescott Clipper. Eugene E. White also opened the Nevada Picayune on February 14, 1878 as editor. He remained until he left for Hot Springs in 1883 to open the Daily Herald. At that point, his brother, W. B. White, took over the paper.

The Nevada Picayune was both a democratic and populist paper over its tenure. It had a seven-column folio and was printed on Wednesdays and Saturdays. In January 1906, editor C. B. Andrews lost everything in a fire that destroyed the newspaper office. Employing the honor system, Andrews asked all subscribers and debtors to contact him. He reopened the Picayune in the Brooks building on East Front Street.

The most notable Picayune employee was Fredrick W. Allsopp. He worked for free at the Nevada County Picayune for thirteen weeks in the printing department before moving to Little Rock to begin his 40-year career at The Arkansas Gazette. From the mailroom, Allsopp worked his way up to Secretary and Business Manager of the statewide newspaper before building a hotel, opening a bookstore, and publishing five books.

The Nevada Picayune closed its doors in September 2018, after 140 years of publication.

 

For more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87091048/

Before the Iron Mountain Railway reached Southwest Arkansas, Nevada County was primarily a sparsely populated agricultural settlement near the Little Missouri River. It was the 63rd county in Arkansas, formed during Reconstruction from lands previously in Hempstead, Ouachita, and Columbia counties. Prescott, the county seat, is 100 miles southwest of Little Rock.

The first post office opened in Prescott in November 1873. Two years later, The Prescott Banner, Nevada County's first newspaper, was established by brothers, Eugene E. and W. B. White. Over the next two years, the paper's name changed three times, from The Prescott Banner to the Prescott Clipper. Eugene E. White also opened the Nevada Picayune on February 14, 1878 as editor. He remained until he left for Hot Springs in 1883 to open the Daily Herald. At that point, his brother, W. B. White, took over the paper.

The Nevada Picayune was both a democratic and populist paper over its tenure. It had a seven-column folio and was printed on Wednesdays and Saturdays. In January 1906, editor C. B. Andrews lost everything in a fire that destroyed the newspaper office. Employing the honor system, Andrews asked all subscribers and debtors to contact him. He reopened the Picayune in the Brooks building on East Front Street.

The most notable Picayune employee was Fredrick W. Allsopp. He worked for free at the Nevada County Picayune for thirteen weeks in the printing department before moving to Little Rock to begin his 40-year career at The Arkansas Gazette. From the mailroom, Allsopp worked his way up to Secretary and Business Manager of the statewide newspaper before building a hotel, opening a bookstore, and publishing five books.

The Nevada Picayune closed its doors in September 2018, after 140 years of publication.

For more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85032967/

Before the Iron Mountain Railway reached Southwest Arkansas, Nevada County was primarily a sparsely populated agricultural settlement near the Little Missouri River. It was the 63rd county in Arkansas, formed during Reconstruction from lands previously in Hempstead, Ouachita, and Columbia counties. Prescott, the county seat, is 100 miles southwest of Little Rock.

The first post office opened in Prescott in November 1873. Two years later, The Prescott Banner, Nevada County's first newspaper, was established by brothers, Eugene E. and W. B. White. Over the next two years, the paper's name changed three times, from The Prescott Banner to the Prescott Clipper. Eugene E. White also opened the Nevada Picayune on February 14, 1878 as editor. He remained until he left for Hot Springs in 1883 to open the Daily Herald. At that point, his brother, W. B. White, took over the paper.

The Nevada Picayune was both a democratic and populist paper over its tenure. It had a seven-column folio and was printed on Wednesdays and Saturdays. In January 1906, editor C. B. Andrews lost everything in a fire that destroyed the newspaper office. Employing the honor system, Andrews asked all subscribers and debtors to contact him. He reopened the Picayune in the Brooks building on East Front Street.

The most notable Picayune employee was Fredrick W. Allsopp. He worked for free at the Nevada County Picayune for thirteen weeks in the printing department before moving to Little Rock to begin his 40-year career at The Arkansas Gazette. From the mailroom, Allsopp worked his way up to Secretary and Business Manager of the statewide newspaper before building a hotel, opening a bookstore, and publishing five books.

The Nevada Picayune closed its doors in September 2018, after 140 years of publication.

 

For more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87091047/

 

Newark is in Independence County, in northeastern Arkansas. It is one of the larger towns in Independence County and was prominent early in the 1900s. Members from the community of Akron founded Newark, as Akron often suffered damage from the overflow of the White River. Additionally, the Iron Mountain and Southern Railroad had planned to route its new railroad through Akron, but instead built it on higher ground a mile north, which became Newark. Newark relied on the railroad to transport goods and people, with the main town business center facing the railroad tracks. People from other towns in Independence County traveled to Newark to do their shopping. The town weathered the Great Depression as people were used to living simple lives and the local merchants let people make purchases on credit. Even though Newark was a bustling county center, there was only one newspaper that managed to run for more than a few years.

Oscar Franklin Craig established the Newark Journal in 1901. He published the four-page paper once a week on Fridays. The paper was briefly suspended in October 1908, but resumed in January 1909. Craig originally created the Journal as a local paper, with no stated political leaning. After a few years the paper was listed as Democratic, reflecting the political views of much of the town's populace.

Newark was an active Democratic community and the town held many large political rallies and community picnics. These activities drew people from around the state, including prominent politicians. One visitor in 1904 was then-Governor Jeff Davis. Davis was campaigning in Newark and he insulted Craig, who attempted to attack the Governor in the newspaper. This caused Davis to leave town quickly. In a later election, Davis lost in Newark by two-to-one even though he was a Democrat.

On November 7, 1918 the Journal prematurely printed a headline that the World War I armistice had been signed. On November 14, the Journal printed the same headline, correctly announcing the Allied triumph on November 11.

 For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051084/.

Newport is a town in Jackson County in northeast Arkansas. It is located on the White River where the landscape changes from the Ozark foothills to the flat Delta region. Acting as an important junction for river, rail, and road traffic, Newport became an affluent river town by the early twentieth century. Agriculture, timber, and fresh water pearling were important economic contributors for the town. In 1892, Newport became the county seat and still is today.

 In 1901, Percy H. Van Dyke created the Newport Independent as a daily edition, Newport Daily Independent (1901-29), and a weekly edition, Newport Weekly Independent (1901-29). Van Dyke started the business with a Washington hand press and modernized his equipment and office over time. He acted as the editor and publisher until 1917 when he sold the Newport Independent to Austin C. Wilkerson and retired from the newspaper business. At the time of purchase, the Newport Daily Independent was the only daily newspaper left in Newport.

The Newport Independent focused on local news in Newport, the northeast region, and the state. The newspaper regularly reported about agricultural concerns and the freshwater pearling industry while also posting the latest train schedules. Pearl purchases were documented in the "About People--Mainly" section. On June 21, 1902, the Newport Independent declared that Newport was the "leading pearl market of Northeast Arkansas and in the number of pearls which change hands, probably ranks ahead of any town in this section of states." During the lead up to the First World War in 1914, national and international news began to make the front page and continued to be published on a recurring basis throughout, and after, the war. Flooding was a problem for Newport and the surrounding area, and updates on water levels for the White River and its tributary, the Black River, were frequently given. In 1918, the Board of Directors of the Newport Levee District made plans for a new levee system that would give Newport separate protection from the Jacksonport levee, which had failed in the past.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051130/.

Newport is a town in Jackson County in northeast Arkansas. It is located on the White River where the landscape changes from the Ozark foothills to the flat Delta region. Acting as an important junction for river, rail, and road traffic, Newport became an affluent river town by the early twentieth century. Agriculture, timber, and fresh water pearling were important economic contributors for the town. In 1892, Newport became the county seat and still is today.

In 1901, Percy H. Van Dyke created the Newport Independent as a daily edition, Newport Daily Independent (1901-29), and a weekly edition, Newport Weekly Independent (1901-29). Van Dyke started the business with a Washington hand press and modernized his equipment and office over time. He acted as the editor and publisher until 1917 when he sold the Newport Independent to Austin C. Wilkerson and retired from the newspaper business. At the time of purchase, the Newport Daily Independent was the only daily newspaper left in Newport.

The Newport Independent focused on local news in Newport, the northeast region, and the state. The newspaper regularly reported about agricultural concerns and the freshwater pearling industry while also posting the latest train schedules. Pearl purchases were documented in the "About People--Mainly" section. On June 21, 1902, the Newport Independent declared that Newport was the "leading pearl market of Northeast Arkansas and in the number of pearls which change hands, probably ranks ahead of any town in this section of states." During the lead up to the First World War in 1914, national and international news began to make the front page and continued to be published on a recurring basis throughout, and after, the war. Flooding was a problem for Newport and the surrounding area, and updates on water levels for the White River and its tributary, the Black River, were frequently given. In 1918, the Board of Directors of the Newport Levee District made plans for a new levee system that would give Newport separate protection from the Jacksonport levee, which had failed in the past.

For more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051128/

Ozark, one of the oldest cities in Arkansas, was founded in 1836 in the northwestern part of the state. The city was established at the northernmost bend in the Arkansas River, which creates the southern border of the city. The river gave the city its name, from the French "Aux Arc," which means "at the bend." The city is bordered on the north by the Ozark Mountains and is part of Arkansas Highway 23, also called the Pig Trail Scenic Byway. Ozark was incorporated in 1850 and, along with Charleston, is one of the two county seats in Franklin County.

Ozark opened its first post office in 1837, built a courthouse by 1840, and obtained its first telegraph in 1862 during the Civil War. By 1888, Ozark had a railroad and its first industrial business: a vegetable canning factory. Compared to these early businesses, The Spectator newspaper opened late in the history of Ozark. The Spectator was founded in 1911 by R. H. Burrow, who also owned three other newspapers. Burrow claimed he began running his first paper without any newspaper experience, and he had to learn as he worked. He passed down this knowledge to his daughter, Elizabeth A. Burrow, who eventually became part owner and editor for the Spectator.

The Spectator was published twice per week, on Tuesdays and Fridays, which led to its unofficial moniker, the Twice-a-Week Spectator. The paper changed names briefly in 1916 to The Ozark Spectator, when Burrow published the paper with Edward F. Cox. Cox managed the paper while Burrow was busy in Alma, Arkansas working as an editor for a paper there. Cox published the paper on Wednesdays and Saturdays. In 1917, the paper returned to being published solely by Burrow and was again named The Spectator. Although many papers preceded the Spectator's arrival in Ozark, The Spectator is the only paper still in existence from Ozark's early history.

The Spectator published local, national, and international news. The paper published daily schedules for Ozark's four passenger trains and entertainment news about the Ozark Opera House. The Spectator informed its readers of the Democratic nominees for local and national appointment. It reported on major international events, such as World War I, and advertised American war propaganda films. It also published chapters of various novels for readers to follow, along with entertaining fictional stories.

The nationally renowned editor, Elizabeth A. Burrow, worked for the Spectator for 30 years. She reported the news in the local area and gave editorial comment. She held to her beliefs on right and wrong and conveyed them to the Spectator's audience even when her opinions were divisive or unpopular. In 1957 she won a National Editorial Association award for her editorial defending the admission of African Americans to the Ozark high school. She wrote that the Ozark community was responsible for all of its citizens, regardless of color. She described the people protesting about desegregation of the school as "a malignancy worse than my cancer and I wouldn't swap with you." In 1962 Elizabeth Burrow did pass away from cancer, but she left a lasting mark on Ozark through her work at The Spectator.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90050371/.

Paragould, Arkansas is situated just across the Missouri border in the northeastern region of the state in Greene County. At the time of settlement it had few roads and many obstructions, including swampland and an abundance of timber. Sitting atop Crowley's Ridge, early pioneers took advantage of the lush terrain and uncommon hardwood trees to create a booming timber industry. As the railroad moved in, so did the people, flocking to town to work in timber mills and factories.

As a result of the booming economy, in late 1886 J. R. Taylor founded the Paragould Press. After successfully working on newspapers in Jackson and Memphis, Tennessee, Taylor settled in Jonesboro, Arkansas in 1883, where he became editor and part owner of the Jonesboro Democrat, followed by a stint as mayor. After resigning from politics and selling off his interest in the Jonesboro Democrat (later to become The Jonesboro Sun), Taylor moved to Paragould. There, he owned the paper until 1888 when he sold it to W. A. H. McDaniel in order to, once again, run for and return to the state senate. Only a short time later, after pulling out of his run for senate, Taylor went into competition with McDaniel when he established The Greene County Record in 1889. During this time period, according to historian Myrl Rhine Mueller in A History of Green County, Arkansas, "there was a succession of small newspapers published in Paragould. So fast did they rise and fall, exchange publishers and editors, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to sort them out chronologically." The News-Letter, edited by Charles E. Stewart, eventually combined with McDaniel's paper.

In 1893, Greene County mill owner and farmer Ross Coffman went into business with editor W. P. Adams and together they formed The Daily Soliphone. Adams invented the word soliphone by combining the Latin word for sun (sol) and the Greek word for phonics (phone) and joining them with an "i," making "soliphone." Despite its unique title, the paper was poorly managed and lacked sufficient funding. In order to raise capital, Adams mortgaged the publishing equipment with his rival, McDaniel. Later the two came into conflict and McDaniel foreclosed on the mortgage. Adams's paper was left without a press. With no ability to produce the paper, McDaniel sought the help of local Paragould businessman and bank official, M. F. Collier. With financial backing, he was able to continue publication, under the editorship of P. W. Moss until, despite his best efforts, McDaniel was forced to sell the paper. The paper was once again purchased by Taylor and was subsequently turned into two separate papers – The Paragould Daily Press, sent daily to city subscribers, and The Weekly Soliphone, which had a weekly rural circulation.

After Taylor's death in 1917, Griffin Smith became the very well-respected and successful editor of both papers. Upon his retirement, Smith said, "I have been in the newspaper business almost twenty-five years; during that period no successive six months have passed by during which my papers have not engaged in a fight of some kind." The papers continued to change hands and on July 1, 1959 the paper consolidated with the Paragould Daily Press and was subsequently issued as the Paragould Daily Press-Soliphone, a morning rural edition. The Paragould Daily Press was then issued concurrently as an afternoon, city edition.

For more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90050221/

Pine Bluff, in Jefferson County, is in the Lower Delta region of central Arkansas. Pine Bluff was originally part of Arkansas Post, the first European settlement in Arkansas. From 1686 to 1821 it was a local government, military, and trade headquarters for French and Spanish colonists, and later, United States settlers. It was important in the early 19th century as a cotton center and port on the Arkansas River, with a Golden Era in the 1880s. By 1890, it was the state's third-largest city. In 1881 the first railroad was constructed, connecting Pine Bluff to Little Rock. Railroads were the largest industry until 1942, when the Pine Bluff Arsenal was built. Though it was an early European establishment with a rich history, floods, drought, and economic depression contributed to the city's decline in the 20th century.

In 1887, late in Pine Bluff's settlement history, Read Fletcher and T. H. Bass started the Pine Bluff Weekly Graphic. Bass acted as business manager and brought his printing press from Redfield to Pine Bluff, where Fletcher worked as editor. He devoted the Graphic to "the material interests of Pine Bluff, Jefferson County, and the state of Arkansas. In politics it will adhere to the time-honored principles of the Democratic Party." The next year Fletcher ran the paper on his own, publishing once a week on Saturdays. Fletcher's hopes for the Graphic eventually came true, but Fletcher moved on to other civil service just a few years after founding the paper. He became a prominent politician, including serving as a member of the state House of Representatives.

In 1888, James "Jim" White Adams bought the paper and expanded it to several editions published throughout the week. The various editions were reflected in the title, with the Graphic printing under the Semi-Weekly, Weekly, and Daily names. The daily edition moved from an evening to a morning paper over the years and appeared every day except for Mondays, with a special Sunday edition. The semi-weekly edition was printed on Wednesdays and Saturdays. The daily and semi-weekly issues were four pages, while the Sunday edition was eight pages.

Like the Graphic's founder, Read Fletcher, James Adams was a politician and he served two terms in the State Senate. He continued as editor and publisher until his sudden death in 1908.

After James Adams' death, his brother, George Adams, took over the Adams Printing Company and continued on with the Graphic. By 1920, George Adams had five machines including a new model No. 14 linotype. The Graphic grew with the town and was successful for years, but finally folded in 1942.

The Adams brothers supported the causes they thought were in the best civic interests of Pine Bluff. The Graphic focused on local and state news, with some reports about major international news, such as the Armistice of 11 November 1918. In 1904, an extra edition updated readers quickly after news came in about election results and fraud accusations in the votes for Arkansas governor ("Wood Concedes Davis a Majority on Face of Return").

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051168/.

Before the Iron Mountain Railway reached Southwest Arkansas, Nevada County was primarily a sparsely populated agricultural settlement near the Little Missouri River. It was the 63rd county in Arkansas, formed during Reconstruction from lands previously in Hempstead, Ouachita, and Columbia counties. Prescott, the county seat, is 100 miles southwest of Little Rock.

The first post office opened in Prescott in November 1873. Two years later, The Prescott Banner, Nevada County's first newspaper, was established by brothers, Eugene E. and W. B. White. Over the next two years, the paper's name changed three times, from The Prescott Banner to the Prescott Clipper. Eugene E. White also opened the Nevada Picayune on February 14, 1878 as editor. He remained until he left for Hot Springs in 1883 to open the Daily Herald. At that point, his brother, W. B. White, took over the paper.

The Nevada Picayune was both a democratic and populist paper over its tenure. It had a seven-column folio and was printed on Wednesdays and Saturdays. In January 1906, editor C. B. Andrews lost everything in a fire that destroyed the newspaper office. Employing the honor system, Andrews asked all subscribers and debtors to contact him. He reopened the Picayune in the Brooks building on East Front Street.

The most notable Picayune employee was Fredrick W. Allsopp. He worked for free at the Nevada County Picayune for thirteen weeks in the printing department before moving to Little Rock to begin his 40-year career at The Arkansas Gazette. From the mailroom, Allsopp worked his way up to Secretary and Business Manager of the statewide newspaper before building a hotel, opening a bookstore, and publishing five books.

The Nevada Picayune closed its doors in September 2018, after 140 years of publication.

For more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90050303/

Prescott is the largest city in Nevada County in southwestern Arkansas. The Prescott area was mainly wilderness in the early 1800s, with a few cotton plantations. It was along the transportation corridor that connected Camden and Washington, Arkansas. This corridor was used for shipping goods and moving people, including Native Americans during Indian Removal. In 1864 there was an important Civil War skirmish nearby at Prairie d'Ane as part of the Camden Expedition.

However, the first development at Prescott occurred later in the 19th century, when the Cairo and Fulton Railroad built a line to connect Little Rock to Texarkana, Arkansas. In 1873 the railroad obtained permission to start a town along their line, which would become Prescott. Stores, a restaurant, and a hotel were built quickly and the railroad depot followed. That same year Prescott built a post office, and in 1877 it became the county seat. In 1891 the Ozan Lumber Company was established in Prescott along with another railroad, the Reader Railroad. Around that time, agriculture also became a major industry, and the town used icehouses to preserve fruits while they awaited shipping. Prescott had a diverse citizenship, which led to some divisive politics in the town. Prescott declined during the Great Depression as people left to find jobs, though the fruit industry continued for some time.

Henry B. McKenzie established The Prescott Daily News in 1907. The paper was published every day except Sunday. The News Printing Company, of which Henry B. McKenzie was the owner, is listed as the publisher on most issues. Reverend W. F. Evans eventually had partial ownership of The Prescott Daily News. The News Printing Company published The Prescott Daily News and The Nevada News (1905-1974), and both papers shared a one room office. McKenzie also managed the Greeson Opera House and helped establish the Nevada County Historical Society in Prescott.

The Daily News focused on local and state news, but included headlines from major international events as well. Local news included the names of guests staying at the Hotel Miller in Prescott and the number of trains passing through town daily (nine passenger trains and 21 freight trains). The paper was Democratic and relayed the party's nominees for county and state elections. It also included interesting articles and advertisements for such things as palmists, psychics, and clairvoyants. The Daily News published health-related articles, including one article about the dangers of drinking soda. The article said that the U.S. Army prohibited the sale of Coca-Cola in post exchanges due to its major ingredients being cocaine and caffeine. The effects of the drink were considered destructive to health and morals.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90050307/.

Little Rock, Arkansas is the Pulaski County seat and home to the state capital. Little Rock is in central Arkansas and adjoins the foothills leading to the Ozark Plateau in the northwest, the Delta extending east to the Mississippi River, and plains stretching southwest into Texas. The city was part of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase and the first permanent European settlement began in 1820. In 1821, Little Rock became the territorial capital, and over the next century, it developed into an urban center.

In the late 1800s, Pulaski Heights was an affluent suburban neighborhood on the outskirts of Little Rock. It was incorporated as a town in 1905 and was originally restricted to all-white residence. Pulaski Heights was the beginning of Little Rock's westward growth, and in 1916, Little Rock voted to make it part of the city. Henry Franklin Auten developed Pulaski Heights and promoted it as a healthy place to live away from the dirty conditions of cities. After being incorporated into Little Rock, the area was further urbanized with sidewalks and paving. Churches and schools began to build in Pulaski Heights, along with businesses and a newspaper.

John C. Small started The Pulaskian in 1915 in Pulaski Heights, but he sold the paper the next year to Parke & Harper publishers. This publishing group was run by Augustus Winfred Parke and Clio Armitage Harper. Harper was a prominent Little Rock citizen who worked at several newspapers. He served as president of the Authors' and Composers' Society of Arkansas as well as the Little Rock Press Club, and he was poet laureate of the Arkansas Press Association. While working as owner and editor of The Pulaskian, Harper was doing the same for the Little Rock Trade Record (1916-19???) and the Arkansas Writer (1920-1922), a literary magazine. In addition, he was an active Democrat involved in city and state activities, such as the police committee and Arkansas State Council of Defense.

William F. Beck wrote one of the most popular columns in The Pulaskian, titled the "Pea Ridge Pod Man," a humorous column about "rambling around" Arkansas. Beck had previously published his own newspaper, The Pea Ridge Pod (1913-1916), in Pea Ridge and then in Siloam Springs. It was well known for its odd and humorous nature, and The New York Times (1857-current) wrote articles praising The Pea Ridge Pod. Despite its popularity, the paper did not have enough financial backing to continue. His paper folded, and Beck began writing his column for The Pulaskian and other newspapers.

The Pulaskian was published once a week, first on Fridays, then changing to Thursdays in 1920. It was one of the longer papers, typically publishing eight pages per issue. Harper brought his Democratic leanings to the pages of The Pulaskian. The paper focused on local news, but it included updates and pictures about World War I.

For more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn92050044/

Russellville, in Pope County, Arkansas lies halfway between Fort Smith and Little Rock, on the Arkansas River. Today this area is referred to as the River Valley, but it was once known as the Cactus Prairie on the Buffalo Trail. Incorporated on June 7, 1870, it grew slowly until the Little Rock & Fort Smith railroad reached the town in 1874.

The Russellville Democrat was first published on January 28, 1875. The weekly newspaper was created by a group of affluent townsmen looking to unify the people of Pope County. These town leaders were J. L. Shinn, President; George E. Howell, Vice-President; J. F. Munday, Secretary; and M. L. Baird, Treasurer. In the paper's inaugural edition, it proclaimed to be an advocate of Liberal, Progressive, and Democratic principles as well as being devoted to local, political, commercial, agricultural, and literary intelligence. The newspaper featured seven columns, with areas dedicated to Fraternal and Religious notices as well as medical, home, and farming advice.

James E. Battenfield was the editor and B. F. Jobe was the business manager for the first six years of publication. Following Battenfield's retirement in 1881, Jobe became publisher with John R. H. Scott. Following several years of quick changes to management, Jobe returned as publisher of the Democrat by 1885. He stayed with the newspaper for a decade before retiring to McAlester, Oklahoma. His brother, J. R. Jobe, became editor and publisher until 1897, when he sold his interest to Bullock & Lawrence.

After only a year of publications, The Russellville Courier consolidated with the Russellville Democrat in September 1898. Under publishers C. B. Oldham and T. B. Mourning, the new publication was titled The Courier=Democrat. It continued to be a weekly paper until 1924, when it was published Monday through Friday. J. A. Livingston, the foreman for the newspaper, bought out Mourning's interest in 1903 and Oldham's in 1905. Livingston was the sole owner of the publication until 1920, when he sold half of the business to Todd Ellis.

Since 1994, the publication has been called The Courier and is published every morning, excluding Mondays.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84023017/.

Pine Bluff, in Jefferson County, is in the Lower Delta region of central Arkansas. Pine Bluff was originally part of Arkansas Post, the first European settlement in Arkansas. From 1686 to 1821 it was a local government, military, and trade headquarters for French and Spanish colonists, and later, United States settlers. It was important in the early 19th century as a cotton center and port on the Arkansas River, with a Golden Era in the 1880s. By 1890, it was the state's third-largest city. In 1881 the first railroad was constructed, connecting Pine Bluff to Little Rock. Railroads were the largest industry until 1942, when the Pine Bluff Arsenal was built. Though it was an early European establishment with a rich history, floods, drought, and economic depression contributed to the city's decline in the 20th century.

In 1887, late in Pine Bluff's settlement history, Read Fletcher and T. H. Bass started the Pine Bluff Weekly Graphic. Bass acted as business manager and brought his printing press from Redfield to Pine Bluff, where Fletcher worked as editor. He devoted the Graphic to "the material interests of Pine Bluff, Jefferson County, and the state of Arkansas. In politics it will adhere to the time-honored principles of the Democratic Party." The next year Fletcher ran the paper on his own, publishing once a week on Saturdays. Fletcher's hopes for the Graphic eventually came true, but Fletcher moved on to other civil service just a few years after founding the paper. He became a prominent politician, including serving as a member of the state House of Representatives.

In 1888, James "Jim" White Adams bought the paper and expanded it to several editions published throughout the week. The various editions were reflected in the title, with the Graphic printing under the Semi-Weekly, Weekly, and Daily names. The daily edition moved from an evening to a morning paper over the years and appeared every day except for Mondays, with a special Sunday edition. The semi-weekly edition was printed on Wednesdays and Saturdays. The daily and semi-weekly issues were four pages, while the Sunday edition was eight pages.

Like the Graphic's founder, Read Fletcher, James Adams was a politician and he served two terms in the State Senate. He continued as editor and publisher until his sudden death in 1908.

After James Adams' death, his brother, George Adams, took over the Adams Printing Company and continued on with the Graphic. By 1920, George Adams had five machines including a new model No. 14 linotype. The Graphic grew with the town and was successful for years, but finally folded in 1942.

The Adams brothers supported the causes they thought were in the best civic interests of Pine Bluff. The Graphic focused on local and state news, with some reports about major international news, such as the Armistice of 11 November 1918. In 1904, an extra edition updated readers quickly after news came in about election results and fraud accusations in the votes for Arkansas governor ("Wood Concedes Davis a Majority on Face of Return").

For more information on this title visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051163/

Hot Springs, in Garland County, Arkansas, is located on the Ouachita River in the Ouachita Mountains. Known for its thermal springs, the city started as a resort center that took advantage of the reputed health benefits of the springs in the early nineteenth century. Incorporated in 1851, the town continued to grow and is now the largest city in the Ouachita Mountains. In the early 20th century, Hot Springs was notorious for government corruption and illegal activities.

The Sentinel=Record (1900-current) developed from the Hot Springs Daily Sentinel (1877-82), and is the final title in a long line of fleeting newspapers and mergers. The Hot Springs Daily Sentinel was started by Kit Ousley and John L. Bowers. In 1899, John G. Higgins started a newspaper called the Hot Springs Record (non-extant). Shortly after, he purchased The Morning Sentinel (189?-1900) and merged the two newspapers into the Sentinel=Record. John G. Higgins turned the newspaper into a financial success, an accomplishment in a city known for short-lived newspapers. The paper managed to recover from two fires, one on March 4, 1878 and one on May 10, 1922.

The Sentinel Record averaged eight-page issues, with occasional second editions, that covered local, national, and international news. The "Society" and "Personals" sections kept track of visitors to the health spas and to the Arlington and Eastman hotels. Articles highlighting the draws of the city--like the article on February 5, 1918, "Pleasure and Health the Keynote: Hot Springs Invites Pleasure Seekers to Join with Those Seeking Health"--were published to attract tourists. In the early twentieth century, Hot Springs grew rapidly, and construction was constant. Grand openings were a common subject of advertisements, especially those for theaters and other entertainment places. During that same period, the city suffered from several fires, and fire prevention and inspections were a major concern. Updates on the First World War were given, and on August 16, 1914, the paper argued for the United States to stay neutral during the war.

For more information about this title, visit https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051285/.

Helena is along the Mississippi River in Phillips County in eastern Arkansas. Currently, Helena is combined with West Helena as the county seat, though the two were founded as separate towns. West Helena began nearby as a railroad town incorporated in 1917. Helena and West Helena were fully united in 2006 into Helena-West Helena.

The area of Helena was originally part of a Spanish land grant settled by Sylvanus Phillips in 1815. The county was later named after Phillips, who died in 1830. Helena was incorporated in 1833 and named after Phillips' daughter, Helena Phillips, who died at age 15 just a year after her father's death. Helena was prosperous due to the port on the Mississippi River at the eastern edge of town. The northern border is Crowley's Ridge, on the west is the flat Mississippi floodplain, and to the south are lowland cypress swamps and oxbow lakes. As a steamboat stop between Memphis, Tennessee and Vicksburg, Mississippi, Helena experienced early growth. Later, cotton plantations and the timber industry were the main economic pursuits. By the mid-1850s, Helena had three newspapers, six private schools, and many social groups.

In 1840, Quincy K. Underwood, Sr. and his brother Washington L. Underwood established the Southern Shield in Helena. They published under the Q.K. Underwood & Bro. Publishing group, with Quincy Underwood acting as editor. Washington Underwood died in 1851, and Quincy continued on with the paper. Over the years, Quincy acted variously as sole publisher and in conjunction with others like Taylor and Wilkins. The Southern Shield suspended publication during the Civil War after secessionists burned Underwood's newspaper office in 1861. This was in retaliation for supporting a unified United States in his newspaper. He restarted the paper soon after the Civil War ended. Underwood remained with his paper until it ceased publication in 1874. Two years later, Underwood died in his home in West Helena in his mid-50s.

The Shield ran as a weekly paper and was typically published on Saturdays. The paper supported the Whig party, of which Underwood was a prominent member. Underwood was well-regarded nationally and supported by politicians who recommended him for various political offices. In a letter addressed to President Abraham Lincoln, Richard W. Thompson (Indiana congressman and later Secretary of the Navy) commended Underwood and wanted to appoint him as military governor of Arkansas. In other praise of Underwood, a Pittsburg newspaper wrote an article in support of making Underwood a U.S. Senator representing Arkansas. Despite these commendations, the only office Underwood appears to have held was as probate and county judge in Phillips County.

For more information on this title visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82014892/

Ozark, one of the oldest cities in Arkansas, was founded in 1836 in the northwestern part of the state. The city was established at the northernmost bend in the Arkansas River, which creates the southern border of the city. The river gave the city its name, from the French "Aux Arc," which means "at the bend." The city is bordered on the north by the Ozark Mountains and is part of Arkansas Highway 23, also called the Pig Trail Scenic Byway. Ozark was incorporated in 1850 and, along with Charleston, is one of the two county seats in Franklin County.

Ozark opened its first post office in 1837, built a courthouse by 1840, and obtained its first telegraph in 1862 during the Civil War. By 1888, Ozark had a railroad and its first industrial business: a vegetable canning factory. Compared to these early businesses, The Spectator newspaper opened late in the history of Ozark. The Spectator was founded in 1911 by R. H. Burrow, who also owned three other newspapers. Burrow claimed he began running his first paper without any newspaper experience, and he had to learn as he worked. He passed down this knowledge to his daughter, Elizabeth A. Burrow, who eventually became part owner and editor for the Spectator.

The Spectator was published twice per week, on Tuesdays and Fridays, which led to its unofficial moniker, the Twice-a-Week Spectator. The paper changed names briefly in 1916 to The Ozark Spectator, when Burrow published the paper with Edward F. Cox. Cox managed the paper while Burrow was busy in Alma, Arkansas working as an editor for a paper there. Cox published the paper on Wednesdays and Saturdays. In 1917, the paper returned to being published solely by Burrow and was again named The Spectator. Although many papers preceded the Spectator's arrival in Ozark, The Spectator is the only paper still in existence from Ozark's early history.

The Spectator published local, national, and international news. The paper published daily schedules for Ozark's four passenger trains and entertainment news about the Ozark Opera House. The Spectator informed its readers of the Democratic nominees for local and national appointment. It reported on major international events, such as World War I, and advertised American war propaganda films. It also published chapters of various novels for readers to follow, along with entertaining fictional stories.

The nationally renowned editor, Elizabeth A. Burrow, worked for the Spectator for 30 years. She reported the news in the local area and gave editorial comment. She held to her beliefs on right and wrong and conveyed them to the Spectator's audience even when her opinions were divisive or unpopular. In 1957 she won a National Editorial Association award for her editorial defending the admission of African Americans to the Ozark high school. She wrote that the Ozark community was responsible for all of its citizens, regardless of color. She described the people protesting about desegregation of the school as "a malignancy worse than my cancer and I wouldn't swap with you." In 1962 Elizabeth Burrow did pass away from cancer, but she left a lasting mark on Ozark through her work at The Spectator.

For more information on this title visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88051110/

Ozark, one of the oldest cities in Arkansas, was founded in 1836 in the northwestern part of the state. The city was established at the northernmost bend in the Arkansas River, which creates the southern border of the city. The river gave the city its name, from the French "Aux Arc," which means "at the bend." The city is bordered on the north by the Ozark Mountains and is part of Arkansas Highway 23, also called the Pig Trail Scenic Byway. Ozark was incorporated in 1850 and, along with Charleston, is one of the two county seats in Franklin County.

Ozark opened its first post office in 1837, built a courthouse by 1840, and obtained its first telegraph in 1862 during the Civil War. By 1888, Ozark had a railroad and its first industrial business: a vegetable canning factory. Compared to these early businesses, The Spectator newspaper opened late in the history of Ozark. The Spectator was founded in 1911 by R. H. Burrow, who also owned three other newspapers. Burrow claimed he began running his first paper without any newspaper experience, and he had to learn as he worked. He passed down this knowledge to his daughter, Elizabeth A. Burrow, who eventually became part owner and editor for the Spectator.

The Spectator was published twice per week, on Tuesdays and Fridays, which led to its unofficial moniker, the Twice-a-Week Spectator. The paper changed names briefly in 1916 to The Ozark Spectator, when Burrow published the paper with Edward F. Cox. Cox managed the paper while Burrow was busy in Alma, Arkansas working as an editor for a paper there. Cox published the paper on Wednesdays and Saturdays. In 1917, the paper returned to being published solely by Burrow and was again named The Spectator. Although many papers preceded the Spectator's arrival in Ozark, The Spectator is the only paper still in existence from Ozark's early history.

The Spectator published local, national, and international news. The paper published daily schedules for Ozark's four passenger trains and entertainment news about the Ozark Opera House. The Spectator informed its readers of the Democratic nominees for local and national appointment. It reported on major international events, such as World War I, and advertised American war propaganda films. It also published chapters of various novels for readers to follow, along with entertaining fictional stories.

The nationally renowned editor, Elizabeth A. Burrow, worked for the Spectator for 30 years. She reported the news in the local area and gave editorial comment. She held to her beliefs on right and wrong and conveyed them to the Spectator's audience even when her opinions were divisive or unpopular. In 1957 she won a National Editorial Association award for her editorial defending the admission of African Americans to the Ozark high school. She wrote that the Ozark community was responsible for all of its citizens, regardless of color. She described the people protesting about desegregation of the school as "a malignancy worse than my cancer and I wouldn't swap with you." In 1962 Elizabeth Burrow did pass away from cancer, but she left a lasting mark on Ozark through her work at The Spectator.

For more information on this title visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90050361/

The city of Springdale stretches over two counties, Washington and Benton, in northwest Arkansas. Springdale attracted European settlers in the early 1800s due to the abundance of natural resources. Many of the first homes and the town church burned during the Civil War. In 1881, the St. Louis-San Francisco Railroad built a track through town and Springdale began shipping out carloads of fruit. By the 1930s, Springdale businesses included a roller mill, grape juice plant, winery, distillery, and canneries. In 1924, Joe Steele founded the Steele Canning Company, which became one of the largest private canning companies in the world. Another largescale business founded in Springdale, the Tyson Foods Company, began in the 1930s under John Tyson. By 1940, Arkansas was the largest producer of chicken in the United States.

John Pleasant Stafford worked as an apprentice at the first newspaper in Springdale, the Springdale Enterprise, in the early 1880s (1881-1883). In 1887, he purchased The Arkansas Locomotive (1886-1887) in Springdale. Later that year, he started his own paper, The Springdale News. Stafford was only 18 years old when he established the News and was said to be the youngest newspaper publisher in Arkansas. Stafford's first office for the News had only a few fonts, a cheap job press, and an "army" press in a 14-foot square room in a frame building downtown. In 1890, he installed a typewriter. Stafford found it difficult to collect money from his advertisers and subscribers. To remedy this, he accepted goods like loads of wood to heat his office in exchange for newspapers.

In addition to running the paper, Stafford was involved in the community by serving on boards of local organizations and performing in the city band. He also worked in state government and served two terms in the state legislature. In 1929, he was elected president of the Arkansas Press Association. Stafford had seven children, all of whom worked at the paper over the years. John Stafford died in 1933, and his son Edward "Marty" Stafford took over as editor of the News.

The Springdale News was originally a four-page paper published weekly. The paper published a daily edition for a short run, but it quickly returned to the once-a-week publication schedule. The News again temporarily published daily editions in 1898 to report telegraphed news from the Spanish-American War. In 1904 and 1909, Stafford attempted publishing the News twice a week, but not until 1928 did the News consistently appear twice a week every week. The most popular section of the paper was the information from correspondents around Arkansas who reported news from their cities, including Johnson, Spring Valley, and Elm Springs.

In 1990, The Springdale News became The Morning News (1990-1994). In 1994, the paper merged with the Northwest Arkansas Morning News (1978-1994) to form The Morning News of Northwest Arkansas (1994-current), which is still in publication.

For more information visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83007654/

Before the Iron Mountain Railway reached Southwest Arkansas, Nevada County was primarily a sparsely populated agricultural settlement near the Little Missouri River. It was the 63rd county in Arkansas, formed during Reconstruction from lands previously in Hempstead, Ouachita, and Columbia counties. Prescott, the county seat, is 100 miles southwest of Little Rock.

The first post office opened in Prescott in November 1873. Two years later, The Prescott Banner, Nevada County's first newspaper, was established by brothers, Eugene E. and W. B. White. Over the next two years, the paper's name changed three times, from The Prescott Banner to the Prescott Clipper. Eugene E. White also opened the Nevada Picayune on February 14, 1878 as editor. He remained until he left for Hot Springs in 1883 to open the Daily Herald. At that point, his brother, W. B. White, took over the paper.

The Nevada Picayune was both a democratic and populist paper over its tenure. It had a seven-column folio and was printed on Wednesdays and Saturdays. In January 1906, editor C. B. Andrews lost everything in a fire that destroyed the newspaper office. Employing the honor system, Andrews asked all subscribers and debtors to contact him. He reopened the Picayune in the Brooks building on East Front Street.

The most notable Picayune employee was Fredrick W. Allsopp. He worked for free at the Nevada County Picayune for thirteen weeks in the printing department before moving to Little Rock to begin his 40-year career at The Arkansas Gazette. From the mailroom, Allsopp worked his way up to Secretary and Business Manager of the statewide newspaper before building a hotel, opening a bookstore, and publishing five books.

The Nevada Picayune closed its doors in September 2018, after 140 years of publication.

For more information on this title visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn90050304/

The True Democrat (1852-7) was first printed on September 7, 1852, in Little Rock, Arkansas by owners and publishers Richard Henry Johnson and Reuben S. Yerkes, with Johnson serving as editor. Its preceding title, the Arkansas Democratic Banner (1851-2), was changed to the True Democrat for political reasons. The new publishers described the reason for the name change as "renewed assurances of fidelity to the noble principles of our party... we unfurl to our patrons and the public--'THE TRUE DEMOCRAT.'" The True Democrat and its successors--Arkansas True Democrat (1857-62) and True Democrat (1862-3)--were published as weeklies. Daily editions were published for a short time, including the Daily True Democrat (1861) and the True Democrat Bulletin (1862-?), but these editions ended due to financial constraints and lack of support.

Like most antebellum newspapers in Little Rock, the True Democrat focused on politics. It supported the Democratic Party, and during the 1860 elections supported former editor Johnson for Governor and John Cabell Breckinridge for President. Both candidates lost, and Johnson returned to his position as editor after the elections. When political events escalated into the Civil War, Arkansas officially seceded from the Union on May 6, 1861, to join the Confederate States of America. In early 1862, Johnson published relatively up-to-date information on the war by coordinating with and receiving reports from soldiers in various Arkansas regiments. This arrangement ended when military officials ordered soldiers to cease disclosing military activities. Johnson reported that "our military leaders wisely keep their own counsels, and we content ourself [sic] with chronicling the result when it happens, instead of the intentions which may be lost by a premature disclosure."

Throughout the Civil War, newspapers in Arkansas struggled to overcome shortages of personnel and paper. On April 3, 1862, Johnson calculated that "by issuing on a half-sheet we will have paper enough for twelve months." For the True Democrat, the paper shortage was compounded by financial difficulties caused by the high number of delinquent subscribers. In July 1863, the number of True Democrat readers was estimated at 20,000 with only 10,000 subscribers. The publishers attempted to save the newspaper by using a paper supplier in Georgia, but this plan failed when shipments could no longer cross the Mississippi River due to the Siege of Vicksburg in 1863. The True Democrat ran out of paper, and on July 8, 1863, the True Democrat published its last issue on wrapping paper. The newspaper did not resume after the war.

For more information on this title visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051467/

The True Democrat (1852-7) was first printed on September 7, 1852, in Little Rock, Arkansas by owners and publishers Richard Henry Johnson and Reuben S. Yerkes, with Johnson serving as editor. Its preceding title, the Arkansas Democratic Banner (1851-2), was changed to the True Democrat for political reasons. The new publishers described the reason for the name change as "renewed assurances of fidelity to the noble principles of our party... we unfurl to our patrons and the public--'THE TRUE DEMOCRAT.'" The True Democrat and its successors--Arkansas True Democrat (1857-62) and True Democrat (1862-3)--were published as weeklies. Daily editions were published for a short time, including the Daily True Democrat (1861) and the True Democrat Bulletin (1862-?), but these editions ended due to financial constraints and lack of support.

Like most antebellum newspapers in Little Rock, the True Democrat focused on politics. It supported the Democratic Party, and during the 1860 elections supported former editor Johnson for Governor and John Cabell Breckinridge for President. Both candidates lost, and Johnson returned to his position as editor after the elections. When political events escalated into the Civil War, Arkansas officially seceded from the Union on May 6, 1861, to join the Confederate States of America. In early 1862, Johnson published relatively up-to-date information on the war by coordinating with and receiving reports from soldiers in various Arkansas regiments. This arrangement ended when military officials ordered soldiers to cease disclosing military activities. Johnson reported that "our military leaders wisely keep their own counsels, and we content ourself [sic] with chronicling the result when it happens, instead of the intentions which may be lost by a premature disclosure."

Throughout the Civil War, newspapers in Arkansas struggled to overcome shortages of personnel and paper. On April 3, 1862, Johnson calculated that "by issuing on a half-sheet we will have paper enough for twelve months." For the True Democrat, the paper shortage was compounded by financial difficulties caused by the high number of delinquent subscribers. In July 1863, the number of True Democrat readers was estimated at 20,000 with only 10,000 subscribers. The publishers attempted to save the newspaper by using a paper supplier in Georgia, but this plan failed when shipments could no longer cross the Mississippi River due to the Siege of Vicksburg in 1863. The True Democrat ran out of paper, and on July 8, 1863, the True Democrat published its last issue on wrapping paper. The newspaper did not resume after the war.

For more information on this title visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84023190/

The True Democrat (1852-7) was first printed on September 7, 1852, in Little Rock, Arkansas by owners and publishers Richard Henry Johnson and Reuben S. Yerkes, with Johnson serving as editor. Its preceding title, the Arkansas Democratic Banner (1851-2), was changed to the True Democrat for political reasons. The new publishers described the reason for the name change as "renewed assurances of fidelity to the noble principles of our party... we unfurl to our patrons and the public--'THE TRUE DEMOCRAT.'" The True Democrat and its successors--Arkansas True Democrat (1857-62) and True Democrat (1862-3)--were published as weeklies. Daily editions were published for a short time, including the Daily True Democrat (1861) and the True Democrat Bulletin (1862-?), but these editions ended due to financial constraints and lack of support.

Like most antebellum newspapers in Little Rock, the True Democrat focused on politics. It supported the Democratic Party, and during the 1860 elections supported former editor Johnson for Governor and John Cabell Breckinridge for President. Both candidates lost, and Johnson returned to his position as editor after the elections. When political events escalated into the Civil War, Arkansas officially seceded from the Union on May 6, 1861, to join the Confederate States of America. In early 1862, Johnson published relatively up-to-date information on the war by coordinating with and receiving reports from soldiers in various Arkansas regiments. This arrangement ended when military officials ordered soldiers to cease disclosing military activities. Johnson reported that "our military leaders wisely keep their own counsels, and we content ourself [sic] with chronicling the result when it happens, instead of the intentions which may be lost by a premature disclosure."

Throughout the Civil War, newspapers in Arkansas struggled to overcome shortages of personnel and paper. On April 3, 1862, Johnson calculated that "by issuing on a half-sheet we will have paper enough for twelve months." For the True Democrat, the paper shortage was compounded by financial difficulties caused by the high number of delinquent subscribers. In July 1863, the number of True Democrat readers was estimated at 20,000 with only 10,000 subscribers. The publishers attempted to save the newspaper by using a paper supplier in Georgia, but this plan failed when shipments could no longer cross the Mississippi River due to the Siege of Vicksburg in 1863. The True Democrat ran out of paper, and on July 8, 1863, the True Democrat published its last issue on wrapping paper. The newspaper did not resume after the war.

For more information on this title visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84022882/

Paragould, Arkansas is situated just across the Missouri border in the northeastern region of the state in Greene County. At the time of settlement it had few roads and many obstructions, including swampland and an abundance of timber. Sitting atop Crowley's Ridge, early pioneers took advantage of the lush terrain and uncommon hardwood trees to create a booming timber industry. As the railroad moved in, so did the people, flocking to town to work in timber mills and factories.

As a result of the booming economy, in late 1886 J. R. Taylor founded the Paragould Press. After successfully working on newspapers in Jackson and Memphis, Tennessee, Taylor settled in Jonesboro, Arkansas in 1883, where he became editor and part owner of the Jonesboro Democrat, followed by a stint as mayor. After resigning from politics and selling off his interest in the Jonesboro Democrat (later to become The Jonesboro Sun), Taylor moved to Paragould. There, he owned the paper until 1888 when he sold it to W. A. H. McDaniel in order to, once again, run for and return to the state senate. Only a short time later, after pulling out of his run for senate, Taylor went into competition with McDaniel when he established The Greene County Record in 1889. During this time period, according to historian Myrl Rhine Mueller in A History of Green County, Arkansas, "there was a succession of small newspapers published in Paragould. So fast did they rise and fall, exchange publishers and editors, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to sort them out chronologically." The News-Letter, edited by Charles E. Stewart, eventually combined with McDaniel's paper.

In 1893, Greene County mill owner and farmer Ross Coffman went into business with editor W. P. Adams and together they formed The Daily Soliphone. Adams invented the word soliphone by combining the Latin word for sun (sol) and the Greek word for phonics (phone) and joining them with an "i," making "soliphone." Despite its unique title, the paper was poorly managed and lacked sufficient funding. In order to raise capital, Adams mortgaged the publishing equipment with his rival, McDaniel. Later the two came into conflict and McDaniel foreclosed on the mortgage. Adams's paper was left without a press. With no ability to produce the paper, McDaniel sought the help of local Paragould businessman and bank official, M. F. Collier. With financial backing, he was able to continue publication, under the editorship of P. W. Moss until, despite his best efforts, McDaniel was forced to sell the paper. The paper was once again purchased by Taylor and was subsequently turned into two separate papers – The Paragould Daily Press, sent daily to city subscribers, and The Weekly Soliphone, which had a weekly rural circulation.

After Taylor's death in 1917, Griffin Smith became the very well-respected and successful editor of both papers. Upon his retirement, Smith said, "I have been in the newspaper business almost twenty-five years; during that period no successive six months have passed by during which my papers have not engaged in a fight of some kind." The papers continued to change hands and on July 1, 1959 the paper consolidated with the Paragould Daily Press and was subsequently issued as the Paragould Daily Press-Soliphone, a morning rural edition. The Paragould Daily Press was then issued concurrently as an afternoon, city edition.

For more information on this title visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89051436/

Judsonia is in White County, Arkansas, along the lower Little Red River, in the northeast central region of the state. The southern half of modern Judsonia was originally a separate town called Prospect Bluff, which was situated the first highland bank on the northern side of the river. In 1870 the name Judsonia first appeared, and the town was incorporated ten days after Prospect Bluff in 1872. In 1874 the two towns chose to merge into one. That same year, the first strawberries were harvested, and they quickly became the dominant cash crop.

Edgar Curtis Kinney founded the Judsonia Advance in 1878. It began as an 8-page paper issued every Wednesday. Originally listed as politically neutral, the Advance changed its political affiliation multiple times during its run. The Advance advertised as a newspaper devoted to religious, educational, literary, and local matters and its motto was "Overcome prejudice. Let free thought and free speech be encouraged."

In 1886, Kinney sold the paper to Berton W. Briggs. Berton and his brother Flavel G. Briggs ran the Advance as a politically independent newspaper under their publishing group, the Briggs Brothers. They published the paper until 1889, at which time they sold it back to Kinney. Kinney ran the paper variously as Republican and independent.

Edgar Kinney was raised in New York and worked for the circus, traveling around the United States before settling in Arkansas. After moving to Arkansas, Kinney was heavily involved in the Arkansas State Horticultural Society and fruit farming, as was popular in Judsonia. He was an active Republican and president of the first Republican Convention held in White County. He also served as mayor of Judsonia. In the late 1800s he was the president of the Arkansas Press Association. One of his sons, Gilbert Earle Kinney, learned the newspaper trade from him and took over the Judsonia Advance in 1902. Around this time, the Advance's title changed officially to the Judsonia Weekly Advance.

Gilbert Kinney ran the Weekly Advance as a Republican paper until 1908. In 1909, O. R. Rich bought the paper and continued running it with a Republican perspective until 1914. Ralph C. Mann, Sr. owned the paper in 1915 and ran it as a Democratic paper until 1920. After purchasing the paper, Mann installed new printing machinery, including a cylinder press and linotype machine, and was able to increase his subscribers by the hundreds. In 1921, Mann changed the Weekly Advance to an independent affiliation, and in 1922 began publishing on Thursdays instead of Wednesdays. Mann's final change was a major one: he combined the Advance with The Bald Knob Eagle (1921-1922) to form the White County Record, published by the Mann Printing Company. The White County Record continued to circulate into the 21st century.

For more information on this title visit, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84002111/

McCrory is in Woodruff County in northeastern Arkansas. In 1862, the Arkansas legislature established Woodruff County, naming it for William Edward Woodruff, founder of Arkansas's first newspaper, the Arkansas Gazette (1819-1836). In 1870, town founder Cyrus McCrory purchased 400 acres of land. His son, Cyrus Wade McCrory, inherited the land and farming business. In 1886, Wade McCrory allowed the Iron Mountain Railroad to build a depot and track on the south side of his property. Industry flourished in McCrory after the first train came through in 1887. A hotel, school, churches, stave plant, furniture store, drug stores, grocery stores, and lumber mills opened. Cotton was the main crop, in an industry dominated by a few farmers who had large amounts of land and field workers. In 1890, Wade McCrory incorporated the new town and continued investing in its development, donating land for churches and schools. In 1902 he opened the Bank of McCrory, which is the oldest and largest in the county and the only local bank that remained in operation during the Great Depression.

In 1901, Gustave W. Kramer established the Woodruff County News in McCrory. The News was the first newspaper in town, and it continued to be the only paper there through most of its run. Kramer issued the Democratic paper on Thursdays. The News focused on county issues and included a listing of the Iron Mountain Railroad schedule. During this time, Walter Wilson Raney worked in Kramer's printing office, assisting with publishing the News. After two years, Raney left to work as assistant postmaster.

Around the same time Raney left the paper, Gustave Kramer also left and sold the paper. In 1903, Ernest Carl Kramer took over as editor and publisher. He lived in McCrory for just a few years, publishing the News in addition to working as City Attorney, Deputy Prosecuting Attorney of Woodruff County, and judge in the Arkansas Supreme Court. In 1906 Ernest Kramer hired Charles M. James and both men worked as editors on the News under the News Publishing Company. Shortly after James was hired, Raney returned to the newspaper business by purchasing a half interest in the News, buying out Kramer's interest. Kramer moved to California and served there as District Attorney and judge on the state's Supreme Court.

In 1906, Raney bought full interest in the paper and continued publishing it until 1909. Raney left the News, but later continued his newspaper career by establishing several other papers in McCrory. In 1910, Charles James again bought into the paper, this time as sole editor. James merged the Woodruff County News with the Informer, which was founded that year, to create the News-Informer (1910-19??). The consolidated paper published under the News-Informer Publishing Company and continued to issue the Democratic leaning paper on Thursdays. There is no record of the News-Informer being published past 1912.


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